Inżynieria Mineralna https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe <p><strong><span class="aCOpRe">Inżynieria Mineralna – <em>Journal of the Polish Mineral Engineering Society</em></span></strong></p> <p>Inżynieria Mineralna to oficjalne czasopismo Polskiego Towarzystwa Przeróbki Kopalin.</p> <p>Polityka wydawnicza Inżynierii Mineralnej wynika z realizacji podstawowego celu istnienia czasopisma naukowego – nauka to publikowanie.</p> <p>Inżynieria Mineralna zakłada przede wszystkim wsparcie dla autorów oraz młodych naukowców (stąd bardzo liberalne reguły publikowania w IM) oraz na upowszechnianiu nauki w najszerszy możliwy sposób.</p> <p>Inżynieria Mineralna tworzyła swą politykę wydawnicza w opraciu o model 3. sektorowy, wynikający ze statutu wydawcy: mamy ambicję łączyć samorząd, politykę, NGOsy, przemysł oraz naukę, w poszukiwaniu najefektowniejszych rozwiązań w zakresie inżynierii mineralnej i nauk pokrewnych.&nbsp;</p> <p>Co istotne, wydawca Inżynierii Mineralnej działa non-profit, w dodatku często wspiera organizację konferencji naukowych.</p> Polskie Towarzystwo Przeróbki Kopalin pl-PL Inżynieria Mineralna 1640-4920 Krótka charakterystyka ochry ze sztolni Marta (Nižná Slaná, Spiš-Gemer Ore Mts https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/492 <p>The contribution deals with the study on composition of ochre sample from the Marta adit at Nižná Slaná. Three samples were prepared from ochre by hand picking and screening, which were subjected to GA, AAS, XRF and XRD. Salts precipitated on surface at drying contain 17.7 % S (53 % as SO4), 16.5 % MgO, 13.6 % Fe2O3, 3.54 % CaO and 1 % MnO. As to mineral composition, sulphates such as gypsum, starkeyite and rozenite are dominant. The fraction of grain size under 250 micron contains 30 % Fe2O3, 28.6 % SiO2, 8 % Al2O3, 6.6 % CaO, 2.9 % MgO and 1.95 % S. Notable is content of arsenic in this fraction, which attain as high as 1.84 %. Quartz and gypsum occur as dominant crystalline phases. As to coarser fraction, i.e. under 150 microns, 44.5 % SiO2, 16.8 % Fe2O3, 11.3 % Al2O3, 6.9 % CaO, 2.4 % MgO a 2.3 % C were assayed. Dominant quartz is accompanied by mica, plagioclase, ankerite and dolomite. It was shown that arsenic is bonded in finer grain size fraction.</p> Slavomir Hredzák Marek Matik Oľga Šestinová Daniel Kupka Zuzana Bártová Lenka Hagarová Anton Zubrik Ingrid Znamenáčková Silvia Dolinská Copyright (c) 2024 Slavomir Hredzák,Marek Matik,Oľga Šestinová,Daniel Kupka,Zuzana Bártová,Lenka Hagarová,Anton Zubrik,Ingrid Znamenáčková,Silvia Dolinská https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-19 2024-06-19 1 1 1 6 10.29227/IM-2024-01-01 Kontrastujące style metamorficznych i metasomatycznych złóż kamieni szlachetnych w Cabo Delgado w północnym Mozambiku https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/493 <p>From a conceptual point of view, in some ruby and garnet deposits of the Lalamo Supergroup – Cabo Delgado Nappes Complex, Northern Mozambique – the structural control of the primary mineralization seems to be spatially and geochemically related to the genesis of calcsilicate rocks, also with gemstones. Two main locations, with contrasting paragenesis, were studied in detail – Miteda area and Micute to N’Djekwa sector. Structural and paragenetic analysis, departing from high-resolution cartography, fabric microanalysis, SEM microscopy and mineral identification by X-ray diffractometry, were used with a major incidence in outcrops and small-scale mine diggings. Regional Neoproterozoic formations, especially its metacarbonate members, host Mg, B - rich skarns, bearing dravite and B-Mg-calc-silicate gemstones, especially in Micute and N’Djekwa area. Following the composition of the probable lithological precursor, these minerals, consistently, reveal a geochemical Mg - B signature that could have been inherited from an evaporite type ancestor, inter-stratified with carbonate rocks in the protolithic Lalamo sequence. The focus of hydrothermal circulation in multistage shear zones is invoked as the main pathway to interpret the complex mineralization observed in Miteda. In this case, the structure of a corundum + garnet major spot is coherent with a pull-a- part dilation associated with sinistral shear. There is a relation between red color saturation of ruby and the content of Cr in corundum. Cr can be leached from the meta-ultramafic host-rocks as a byproduct of desilication. Calcsilicate metasomatism could trigger Si sequester, producing metamorphic desilicated fluids. The focus of hydrothermal circulation in shear zones is invoked as the main pathway for the entrapment of metamorphic and metasomatic gem deposits. These occur in corridors of anomalous host-lithologies and vein swarms where peraluminous paragenesis are located inside highly modified meta-ultramafic or metacarbonate rocks. Skarn like lithologies result from reaction with a sedimentary carbonate protolith and gem deposition is mainly metasomatic. Veining affecting metaultramafic sequences of amphibolitic to granulitic facies show occasional, metasomatically affected, eclogite. For the contrasting styles of deposits represented in Micute – N’Djekwa and in Miteda, although the corresponding paragenesis are separated in space, their deposition can be situated in a conceptual model characterized by a geochemical interdependency and time proximity.</p> Carlos Leal Gomes Copyright (c) 2024 Carlos Leal Gomes https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-19 2024-06-19 1 1 7–15 7–15 10.29227/IM-2024-01-02 Wpływ ograniczenia naprężenia na stabilność masy skalnej https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/494 <p>A huge number of factors controls rock mass failure, but it is mainly influenced by the state of stress and in particular on the bearing capacity and failure mechanism of the massif. The evaluation of rock mass strength in confined and unconfined compression, as well as its tension strength, are key issues to understand rock mass behaviour prior to failure. A connection between the laboratory analyses of the rock mass and the practical use of the obtained data is presented in the current work. The strength properties, confinement effect and failure mechanisms are successfully studied in volcanic rock specimens from an underground mine. In order to estimate the confinement effect on rock mass strength properties, different confined compression stresses on rock specimens are applied. In addition, the crack initiation and propagation in rock samples are observed and rock mass failure mechanisms are studied. The obtained data is used for stability analyses of an underground openings through determination of the safety factor. The obtained results of the safety factors underlined the influence of the confining stress on the rock mass. The tendency of increasing values of the shear safety factor and decreasing values of the tensile safety factor as confinement increases is found. This is an important observation that would allowed more accurate predictions of the stable and unstable zones of the underground openings to be carried out, and thus the stability of the rock mass to be improved.</p> Temenuga Georgieva Gustavo Paneiro George Ajdanlijsky Matilde Horta Costa de Silva Paula Falcão Neves Copyright (c) 2024 Temenuga Georgieva,Gustavo Paneiro,George Ajdanlijsky,Matilde Horta Costa de Silva,Paula Falcão Neves https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-19 2024-06-19 1 1 17–25 17–25 10.29227/IM-2024-01-03 Geotermalny przepływ ciepła w Portugalii kontynentalnej https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/495 <p>Heat flow density measurements in Portugal were made in boreholes used for mining prospecting. Heat flow density values in the sedimentary basins of the western and southern margins of the country were obtained using data from oil or gas prospecting works. Due to the scarcity of data in the central and northern regions of the country, numerical models based on some characteristics of the region were used to obtain more heat flow values. The total of heat flow values used in this work is 69, with 17 values obtained using numerical models, 36 obtained in boreholes and 16 obtained from oil/gas prospecting wells data. The analysis and location of these data allows to define different regions in the territory and characterize them using average values of heat flow density, temperature gradient and thermal conductivity. Statistical values with all the data in the territory are also presented.</p> Maria Rosa Duque Copyright (c) 2024 Maria Rosa Duque https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 27–31 27–31 10.29227/IM-2024-01-04 Analiza strukturalna i zróżnicowanie pegmatytów w starożytnym twierdzeniu, Giraúl IV, dystrykt pegmatytów Namibe, Angola https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/496 <p>Since the early 60´s, in the past XX century, the Giraúl pegmatites have been known for their resources of beryl, mica and feldspars, which were exploited in a regular basis from Giraúl claims I to IV till 1974, during the Portuguese administration of Angolan territory. A broader exploration of this pegmatite field was performed by the ancient Lobito Mining Company (LMC) engaged in detailed geological mapping of the granitic pegmatites and the structural constraints of their location. A structural map of the region was than elaborated, combining the interpretation of aerial photographs with field work performed by the LMC geologists. Recently, a growing economic interest is attributed to these claims, in the region of Bulamucolocai, Pitau and Muvero desert-dry rivers (locally known as “Mulolas”), considering the Li, Cs, and Ta (LCT) metallic specialization of some pegmatite bodies and the occurrence of beryl and tourmaline gemstones, mainly, morganite (Cs-beryl), aquamarine and also elbaite-liddicoatite. Giant crystals of spodumene, up to 6 m in length, define individualized quartz + spodumene units inside some of the more typical LCT pegmatite bodies. Pollucite was identified in the main pegmatites of Giraúl IV claim and not in the adjacent igneous leucocratic breccias. These, in turn, correspond to a complex pegmatite assemblage, very peculiar in what concerns its selective metasomatic effect over some surrounding rocks, with the formation of rims of holmquistite amphibole in contact with gabbro and norite and schorl-dravite tourmaline in contact with gneissic to metapelitic hosts. The breccia-like granitic rock combines clasts of spodumene an K-feldspar with a matrix mainly composed of some quartz, albite and mica including tourmaline, garnet and F-apatite, as accessory minerals. In the same area, huge potassic pegmatites hold giant crystals of microcline and orthoclase and very little quartz, being unusual due to its high content of triplite – zwieselite and triphylite – lithiophilite primary phosphates. The overall composition of these pegmatites is more likely syenitic (low quartz content) than truly granitic. A high-resolution structural analysis of the LCT ensemble (pegmatite plus related lithotypes) is now proposed enhancing the unusual relations between granite breccia plugs, sill-like more typical pegmatites, irregular shaped isodiametric bodies and products of metasomatism. This approach will lead to the understanding of the true dimension, anatomy and inner fraccionation of the different LCT facies and rare-metal deposits with obvious consequences regarding mineral detection and resource – reserve estimation, through the proposal of a more suitable conceptual model to rule its exploration.</p> Carlos Leal Gomes Copyright (c) 2024 Carlos Leal Gomes https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 33–42 33–42 10.29227/IM-2024-01-05 Wpływ właściwości dielektrycznych na ogrzewanie rud siarczkowych w polu elektromagnetycznym https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/497 <p>Microwave heating is a form of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation. The heating of primary and secondary mineral raw materials in the microwave field depends primarily on their dielectric and thermal properties. The condition is the absorption of microwave radiation. Dielectric heating of materials occurs immediately after placing them in an electric high-frequency field. Knowledge of the dielectric characteristics of mineral raw materials is an important assumption for the use of electromagnetic radiation at the intensification of technological treatment methods. Most mined minerals consist of several mineral components that have different dielectric properties. Most sulphides are well heated in a microwave field. Conversely, tailings components of ores, such as quartz, are transmission materials. The study of dielectric properties involves measurements of the complex relative permittivity ε*, which consists of a real and an imaginary part. The imaginary part of permittivity “loss factor” represents the measure of dielectric losses in the material. Microwave heating of sulphide ores and concentrates such are chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, galena depends on their chemical composition and content of impurities. The article describes the influence of dielectric properties on heating of chalcopyrite in microwave field. SEM analyses of studied samples are presented.</p> Ingrid Znamenáčková Silvia Dolinská Jaroslav Láčik Slavomír Hredzák Jaroslav Briančin Copyright (c) 2024 Ingrid Znamenáčková,Silvia Dolinská,Jaroslav Láčik,Slavomír Hredzák,Jaroslav Briančin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 43–49 43–49 10.29227/IM-2024-01-06 Prędkość ultradźwiękowa analizy wpływu zawartości wody na kredę fosfatyczną https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/498 <p>Water content may have a crucial effect on the petrophysical and mechanical properties of high porosity rocks such as chalk. Consequently, the water fluctuations may significantly influence the behaviour of engineering structures that are constructed in chalks. It is the aim of this study to illustrate how the elastic and strength properties of chalk can evolve considering water content variation using P-wave velocity and analytical analyses. To study the influence of water on the ultrasonic compressional wave velocity (VP), measurements of travel time of three samples subjected to different water content were performed. The Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) in dry and saturated chalk specimens was also estimated. To clarify the possible influence of lithology on the physicomechanical properties of rocks, three samples of phosphatic chalk were studied in thin sections. Automated mineral analysis and textural imaging of the samples were performed using an FEI QEMSCAN®. The analyses of the Ultrasonic tests reveal that changes in the water content are associated with variations in the P-wave velocity. Based on P-wave velocity changes as a function of water content, analytical models have been used to predict the elastic and strength properties. The data indicate that the presence of water significantly reduced the elastic and strength parameters of the chalk, a result that is in agreement with the UCS laboratory tests. The derived equations can be used for predicting the elastic and strength properties of high-porous chalk from the P-wave velocity as a function of water content. This approach may avoid the necessity for time-consuming laboratory testing.</p> Temenuga Georgieva Gustavo Paneiro Kalin Kouzmanov George Ajdanlijsky Fanny Descamps Sara Vandycke Jean-Pierre Tshibangu Copyright (c) 2024 Temenuga Georgieva,Gustavo Paneiro,Kalin Kouzmanov,George Ajdanlijsky,Fanny Descamps,Sara Vandycke,Jean-Pierre Tshibangu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 51–61 51–61 10.29227/IM-2024-01-07 Badanie mieszaniny metan-wodór w rurociągach pionowych https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/499 <p>The paper presents an assessment of issues regarding the separation phenomena of methane-hydrogen mixtures in vertical pipelines. In the first part of the paper, the explosion risk is underlined. Thus, the widespread use of methane in both the industrial and domestic sectors is well known. In practice, due to recent trends, the injection of hydrogen into dedicated methane installations, the differences in densities can lead to separation phenomena which have an unfavorable effect on the operating regimes of equipment using this mixture and also, on the risk of explosion. The use of hydrogen in the industry is not new, but the increasing impact in terms of the number of users may involve a higher number of accidents due to the increased field of probability of hazardous situations in terms of explosions. The second part presents the used methods. The diffusion and gravitational separation are presented as phenomena having opposite effects. The used methods are theoretical and simulation approaches. The theoretical model is based on a nondynamic model. Therefore, no time parameter was not involved in the model. A linear dependence with the height of the concentration variation was observed for the range of heights considered. The conducted simulation underlined the same conclusion regarding the magnitude of gravitational separations in the methane-hydrogen mixtures. The main conclusion of the approach is that the separation phenomenon effect due to the gas density differences is negligible. The approach also revealed, as expected that the higher level of pipe is exposed to a higher risk of increased hydrogen concentration.</p> Marius Darie Nicolae Vlasin Maria Prodan Sorin Burian Gabriela Pupăzan Lucian Moldovan Copyright (c) 2024 Marius Darie,Nicolae Vlasin,Maria Prodan,Sorin Burian,Gabriela Pupăzan,Lucian Moldovan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 63–69 63–69 10.29227/IM-2024-01-08 Modelowanie numeryczne jako narzędzie do badania wybuchów wodoru https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/500 <p>Currently, the burning of fossil fuels in industry or for transportation has a major negative impact on the environment. Most countries are concerned with environmental security and pollution regulation, motivating researchers around the world to find alternative solutions. An alternative solution may be the large-scale use of hydrogen. Applications of hydrogen in industry or for transportation face challenging conditions. Among other things, we are talking about pressures of up to 1000 bar, extreme temperatures starting from -253 °C (for liquefied hydrogen) and up to 650 °C - 950 °C (in the case of solid oxide electrolytic cells), as well as the imminent risk of explosion. This is because H2 has an extremely low ignition energy, with much wider flammability limits compared to other fuels such as methane or propane. Hydrogen is a highly reactive and explosive gas. Therefore, explosion protection is essential for all processes involving the use of hydrogen in one form or another. The same principles that are applied to natural gas can be applied. Hydrogen behaves similarly to methane in terms of explosion risk, meaning in principle that explosion protection works similarly for both gases. However, there are still many unknowns regarding the phenomenon of initiation and propagation of explosions caused by air-hydrogen mixtures. Taking into account the multiple aspects related to security techniques that must be taken into account for the use of hydrogen in industry or for transport, the current paper focuses on aspects with regard to the use of modern numerical modelling tools for increasing the occupational health and safety level in technological processes endangered by the occurrence of explosive atmospheres generated by air-hydrogen mixtures. It presents a review on the main research activities to be carried out within a the H2Model research project implemented between 2023 – 2026, project which focuses on numerical modelling on the ignition and propagation of explosions caused by air-hydrogen mixtures.</p> Vlad Mihai Pasculescu Emilian Ghicioi Nicolae Ioan Vlasin Marius Cornel Suvar Marius Simion Morar Copyright (c) 2024 Vlad Mihai Pasculescu,Emilian Ghicioi,Nicolae Ioan Vlasin,Marius Cornel Suvar,Marius Simion Morar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 71–76 71–76 10.29227/IM-2024-01-09 Właściwości fizyczne zbiorników łupkowo-piaskowych: Pole Szafranowe, Delta Nilu, Egipt https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/501 <p>The Saffron gas Field is in the Scarab-Saffron Development Lease in the offshore Nile Delta. It was discovered by the Saffron-1 exploration well drilled in 1998 and appraised by Saffron-2 and Sapphire-3 wells. Saffron is a stacked channel system and consists of 6 different reservoirs with differing levels of connectivity between them. It can be interpreted as deep-water canyon fill deposits on a delta-front slope. Some physical properties of 4 full diameter core samples (approximatly164 core plugs) obtained from the Saffron-2 borehole were petrophysically analysed. Helium porosity, horizontal and vertical permeability, grain density and electrical resistivity were laboratory measured. Several bivariant plots were accomplished such as porosity- permeability; grain density, formation resistivity factor; cementation exponent and Winsaur’s multiplier (a) as well. Several regression line equations with robust coefficient of correlations were obtained to be used for reservoir characterization. On the other hand, numerous frequency histograms were built for most of the measured reservoir parameters to determine their type of distribution and other statistical parameters. Some important relations like cementation exponent versus multiplier (a) are performed which improves Archie’s general equation and subsequently the reservoir fluid saturation (Sw and/or Sh). The lack of stratification in sedimentary section represented by core numbers 4&amp;5 of Saffron-2 well have severe consequences on measured reservoir parameters especially exposed by the porosity- permeability relation.</p> Nahla A. El Sayed Abdel Moktader A. El Sayed Osama Moselhy Copyright (c) 2024 Nahla A. El Sayed,Abdel Moktader A. El Sayed,Osama Moselhy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 77–86 77–86 10.29227/IM-2024-01-10 Charakterystyka złoża formacji Baharyia, pola naftowe Neag-1, 2 i 3, Pustynia Zachodnia, Egipt https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/502 <p>An integration was achieved between different bore holes and laboratory measured data using several petrophysical parameters of the Baharyia Formation encountered in Neag-1,2&amp;3 oil fields. It illustrates the key control factors affecting the Baharyia reservoir quality. The obtained petrophysical relationships could be used widely in both exploration geophysics and hydrocarbon reservoir production. It provides and demonstrates solutions for both geological and geophysical engineering problems. The measured porosity and permeability are ranging from 2.5 to 32 % and 0.005 to 874 mD respectively. The influence of diagenesis on both reservoir porosity and permeability has been investigated. Pore filling minerals has been classified into four classes by XRD- analysis technique. A reliable regression equation was reached between reservoir permeability and mineral pore fillings. Several relationships among rock permeability, porosity and density obtained from open hole logs were recognized. The pore throat distribution has been laboratory measured by use of MICP technique for some selected samples. The calculated reservoir storage and flow capacity indicate four major fluid flow types which are controlled by the variations in reservoir pore space framework. Formation resistivity factor – porosity relation was accomplished under reservoir conditions, while the Archie’s 2nd equation was outlined. The Archie’s parameters (a, m &amp;n) were calculated for shaly and clean sandstones of the Baharyia Formation. Both cation exchange capacity (CEC), Mounce potential (MP) and mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) were measured to distinguish reservoir facies.</p> Abdel Moktader A. El Sayed Nahla A. El Sayed M. A. El Bagoury Copyright (c) 2024 Abdel Moktader A. El Sayed,Nahla A. El Sayed,M. A. El Bagoury https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 87–95 87–95 10.29227/IM-2024-01-11 Charakterystyka złoża piaskowca prekenomainskiego: Środkowy Synaj, Egipt https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/503 <p>Fifty-one sandstone core samples obtained from wadi Saal area. They are belonging to the Pre-Cenomanian age. These samples were subjected to various laboratory measurements such as: density, porosity, permeability, electrical resistivity, grain size analysis and ultrasonic wave velocity. The parameters describing reservoir properties are outlined. Packing index, reservoir quality index, flow zone indicator and pore throat radius (R35 and R36) were calculated. The obtained interrelationships among these parameters allowing to improve petrophysical knowledge about the Pre-Cenomanian reservoir information. The obtained rock physics models could be employed with some precautions to the subsurface existences of the Pre-Cenomanian sandstone reservoirs especially in the surrounding areas.</p> Abdel Moktader A. El Sayed Nahla A. El Sayed Copyright (c) 2024 Abdel Moktader A. El Sayed,Nahla A. El Sayed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 97–104 97–104 10.29227/IM-2024-01-12 Właściwości złoża jurajskiej formacji Khatatba: Pole naftowe Tut, Pustynia Północno-Zachodnia, Egipt https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/504 <p>The Tut oil field is in the North-western part of the Western Desert. This work aims to study the reservoir characteristics, to evaluate the hydrocarbon potentiality of the Upper and Lower Safa Members based on the available subsurface data obtained from open-hole well log records of four wells distributed in the study area. Numerous isopach and lithofacies maps have been constructed. The petrophysical evaluation, in terms of determining reservoir net-pay thickness, shale content (Vsh), effective porosity (∅eff), water saturation (Sw) and hydrocarbon saturation (Sh), were estimated. The vertical and the lateral distribution of the reservoir characteristics, in the form of litho-saturation cross-plots, iso-parametric maps and lithologic-matrix cross-plots were constructed. Three hydrocarbon charged zones in the Khatatba Formation were defined and represented by the Upper Safa-Top, Upper Safa-Bottom and Lower Safa-Top. The upper most part of Upper Safa Member (Upper Safa-Top) reservoir represents an oil producing zone where it consists of shallow marine to alluvial sediments. The Lower most part of Upper Safa Member (Upper Safa-Bottom) reservoir represents gas producing zone where it consists of a thick alluvial sand body. Finally, the upper most part of Lower Safa Member (Lower Safa-Top) reservoir represents an oil-gas producing zone consisting of shallow marine sediments with high terrestrial input. The iso-parametric maps show that Northern and central parts of the study area are the most favorable parts for hydrocarbon accumulation due to the increase in net-pay thickness and average effective porosity and decrease in water saturation toward these parts.</p> Abdel Moktader A. El Sayed Nahla A. El Sayed A. A. Radwan Copyright (c) 2024 Abdel Moktader A. El Sayed,Nahla A. El Sayed,A. A. Radwan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 105–113 105–113 10.29227/IM-2024-01-13 Powstawanie polifazowej asamblaży minerałów z grupy platynowców w masywie dunitowo-szonkinitowym Inagli w Aldan Shield na platformie syberyjskiej https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/506 <p>The Inagli massif is a concentric-zonal ring massif consisting of a dunite core bordered by a sequential series of peridotites, pyroxenites and shonkinites. In dunites, there are densely disseminated accumulations of chromspinelides, as well as schlieren and veined particles of massive chromitites, to which polyphase growths of platinum-group minerals (PGM) are confined. The Inagli intrusive, like the well-known Konder massif, belongs to an independent "Aldan" type of platinum-bearing deposits. The Aldan type of ring intrusions is a platform analogue of the "Ural-Alaskan" zonal dunite-gabbro massifs of orogenic regions. In placers, dunites and chromitites of the Inagli massif, PGM are mainly represented by isoferroplatinum (Pt3Fe) with an admixture of iridium up to 8 wt %. In isoferroplatinum, symplektitic iridium particles and small inclusions of osmium, laurite, ehrlichmanite, malanite, as well as other sulfides and arsenides of platinum-group elements (PGE) are often observed. The bulk composition of such polymineral aggregates can be calculated based on the volume ratios and chemical composition of individual phases. The results obtained in this way show that the compositions of the initial polycomponent solid solutions vary from Pt-Ir-Fe to Ir-Os-Ru-Rh-Pt-Pd-Fe alloys. Polycomponent homogeneous solid solutions, which composition gradually changes from Ru-Rh-Ir-Os minerals to Fe-Pt alloys, are known in the Witwatersrand placers. A similar series of solid solutions of PGE is identified in the placers of the Guli massif on the Siberian platform. Unlike the placers of the Witwatersrand and Guli massif, where PGM are mainly represented by Os-Ir alloys, Inagli minerals have mainly a Pt-Ir-Fe composition with a low proportion of Os. The structures of most natural polyphase PGM aggregates are similar to those of artificial alloys, therefore, the former are also products of crystallization of multicomponent metal melts and their subsequent solid-phase transformations. The limits of solubility between PGE differ significantly, therefore, depending on the initial composition of metal alloys, both polycomponent solid solutions and polymineral aggregates can be formed. Based on the analysis of combined double and triple diagrams of PGE systems, the author considers possible ways of evolution of phase transformations of alloys of different composition.</p> Alexander Okrugin Copyright (c) 2024 Alexander Okrugin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 125–133 125–133 10.29227/IM-2024-01-15 Spinel chromianowy z dunitów masywu Inagli i ich termobarometria tlenowa (tarcza ałdańska, platforma syberyjska) https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/507 <p>The Inagli dunite-peridotite-shonkinite zonal-ring intrusive with platinum-chromite mineralization is located on the Aldan shield of the Siberian Platform. Considering the structure, rock composition and ore mineralization, it is similar to the platinum-bearing zonal massifs of the "Ural-Alaskan" type, but this intrusive differs from the latter in its geological position. In order to clarify the physical and chemical conditions of formation of the Inagli massif, the mineral composition of rocks, especially сhromite-containing dunites, peridotites and shonkinites, as well as platinum-chromitite ore segregations, has been studied in detail. The rocks of the Inagli massif, from dunites to shonkinites, including peridotites, clinopyroxenites, and alkaline syenites, form a single continuous series. This is confirmed by a clear dependence of the composition of olivine, pyroxene, phlogopite and chromian spinel on the content of MgO in rocks. They were formed from the initial high-potassium picrite melt, which, during rising, underwent gradual decompression solidification and formed a cylindrical diapir-like body at the near-surface level in the Early Cretaceous. This occurred as a result of subduction processes related to the formation of the Mongol-Okhotsk orogenic belt along the southern framing of the Siberian craton. The values of oxygen volatility (lgfO2) for dunites, peridotites, shonkinites, chromitites and olivine-chromite inclusions in the isoferroplatinum of the Inagli massif, calculated using the method of the olivine-spinel oxygen thermobarometer of Ballhaus-Berry-Green (BBG), form a single trend FMQ+(2-4) in the range 620-11400C, i.e. along the band by 2-4 units of lgfO2 exceeding the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. Such a rather narrow range of variation in the values of O2 fugacity in a wide interval of temperature indicates good comparability and reliability of the data obtained. At the same time, there is a natural decrease in temperature intervals for the formation of olivine-chromite parageneses (in 0С): with isoferroplatinum – (1140-680); in chromitite segregations – (980-710); in dunites – (930-620); peridotites – (890-770) and shonkinites – (840-710). The results obtained almost completely coincide with the field of values for dunites and chromitites from the Platinum-bearing belt of the Urals, given by other researchers. In terms of redox parameters, platinum-bearing zonal ultramafic-mafic massifs of the Ural-Alaskan and Aldanian types are close to more oxidized peridotites with a long history in the lithosphere. They differ significantly from the peridotites of the Beni-Bousera massif, as well as abyssal peridotites of the oceanic ridge systems, and others, which are formed under more reduced conditions corresponding to the range between FMQ, carbon-oxygen-CO (ССО) and iron-wustite (IW) buffers.</p> Alexander Okrugin Copyright (c) 2024 Alexander Okrugin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 135–144 135–144 10.29227/IM-2024-01-16 Główne minerały barwiące w iłach poznańskich: Studia przypadków z górnego neogenu na Niżu Polskim https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/508 <p>This article is devoted exclusively to three iron minerals that have a decisive influence on the colour of the ‘Poznań Clays’. These are hematite, goethite, and jarosite. Their presence gives the ‘Poznań Clays’, which are the most common and best known Neogene lithostratigraphic unit in the Polish Lowlands, characteristic ‘warm’ colours ranging from yellow through orange to dark red. The presented results were mainly obtained using powder X-ray diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy.</p> Jakub Klęsk Artur Błachowski Łukasz Kruszewsk Michał Kubiak Marek Widera Copyright (c) 2024 Jakub Klęsk,Artur Błachowski,Łukasz Kruszewsk,Michał Kubiak,Marek Widera https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 145–152 145–152 10.29227/IM-2024-01-17 Problemy ophiolitów Zagros i ciał bazaltowych, przykłady z Regionu Kurdystanu, północny Irak https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/509 <p>In the Iraqi Zagros, there are ten ophiolites and basaltic bodies, the famous ones are Penjween, Mawat, Bulfat and Peshashan Ophiolite complexes in addition to basaltic bodies such as Kata Rash, Avroman, Gercus, Chalki, and Hamrin basaltic bodies. The present study describes more than 12 significant problems concerning the previous assigning of the bodies as igneous rocks. These problems are observable in the field, laboratory, and in most previous works of literature that oppose the magmatic origin of these bodies. Our study explicated all aspects of each problem and clarified how the problems contradict magmatic crystallization and aid the sedimentary origin of these claimed igneous bodies. Finally, the interpretations of all the problems were collected as conjugate pieces of evidence for appraisal of the new origin of all igneous bodies in the Iraqi and Iranian Zagros belt. The outcomes consider the ophiolitic and basaltic rocks metamorphosed volcaniclastic sandstones (greywackes or mafic sandstone). These sandstones belong to fresh or metamorphosed greywackes of stratigraphic units of the Paleocene-Eocene Walash Formation (as distal facies) and Kata Rash Conglomerate (as proximal facies) which were previously considered volcanic rocks. These sediments are sourced originally from Urumeiah-Dokhtur Magmatic Arc (ADMA) and deposited inside Neo-Tethys, present Sanandaji-Sirjan Zone (SSZ), during the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. Later, the sediments were metamorphosed and uplifted during the Paleocene and deposited inside the Iraqi Zagros belt by turbidity currents inside the Zagros Foreland basin. These ideas are shown in detail by tectonic and paleogeographic models.</p> Kamal Haji Karim Copyright (c) 2024 Kamal Haji Karim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 153–180 153–180 10.29227/IM-2024-01-18 Badanie geoidy i topografii morskiej w lagunach https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/510 <p>The study of geoid fluctuations in coastal areas is extremely important in understanding the changes in the extent of the Earth’s crust and also in the form of the mean sea surface topography (MSST). In recent years, the GNSS-on-boat method has made important steps towards the detailed description of marine topography, achieving precision to the order of a few centimeters, which is much more significant than has been achieved with the alternative satellite and altimetric methods. In this study, the method is applied for the first time in a lagoon, a challenging but exceptionally interesting environment both from a geophysical and hydrodynamic viewpoint. The ‘Papas’ lagoon in Western Achaia (Greece) was chosen for field measurements. The result for the geoid form shows a peak (13-15cm) in the marine topography approximately in the center of the lagoon. If this is confirmed in other lagoons or lakes, it will constitute a significant contribution to hydrocyanic dynamic models, which currently take as a basic assumption that the surface of the water is level. At the same time, the form of the SST indicates a significant reduction in gravity in the center of the lagoon, which may be linked either with a local reduction in the thickness-density of the Earth’s crust or with the existence of underground voids, faults or deposits.</p> Sotiris Lycourghiotis Elizabeth Paraskevi Crawford Foteini Kariotou Copyright (c) 2024 Elizabeth Paraskevi Crawford,Foteini Kariotou https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 181–185 181–185 10.29227/IM-2024-01-19 Algorytm regulacji geometrycznych sieci niwelacyjnych https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/511 <p>The natural way to reduce the duration of measurement of a levelling network is to cut down on the number of levelling lines without damaging the quality of the final results. The main objective of the study is to demonstrate that this is possible without any lack of accuracy, if some mathematical facts regarding the average of both measurements of the line elevations are taken into account. Based on 60 paired random samples of size 1000, derived from different continuous distributions, e.g., N (0, 1), U (-1.732, 1.732) and Gamma (1, 1), each of them with theoretical standard deviation σ=1, it was found that the averages of each pair form new distribution with standard deviation σ≈0.707. However, the samples, which were formed by selecting the nearest to the known theoretical expectation from both measurements and their average have distributions, which standard deviations tend to σ≈0.53, σ≈0.46 and σ≈0.43 for the U (-1.732, 1.732), N (0, 1) and Gamma (1, 1) distributions, respectively. Therefore, if we choose the more appropriate value from the “first”, the “second” measurement and their average, we will increase the accuracy of the network almost 2 times in comparison to the accuracy, yielded by the only use of the averages. If our network contains n lines, the process of finding of these elevation values, which leads to the best fit of the network, is based on 3n single adjustments of the network. In addition, we can minimize the impact of the shape of the network on the final standard errors of the adjusted heights or geopotential numbers of the nodal benchmarks in the network, if we apply some iterative procedures, e.g., Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Inverse Absolute Height Weighting (IAHW), etc. In order to check the above explained algorithm, the Second Levelling of Finland network was adjusted in three variants. In the first variant, the whole network was adjusted as a free one. The classical weights w=L-1 were used. In the second variant, the network was separated into two parts. Applying 312 and 314 independent adjustments, the selection of the best fitted values of line elevations was done and the network was adjusted by using them. The IDW and IAHW with power parameter p=5 were finally applied. In the third variant, the network was separated in four parts. Applying 313, 312, 316 and 312 independent adjustments, the new selection of the line elevations was done and the network was adjusted by them. The IDW (p=6.5) and IAHW (p=6) were executed. Comparison of the standard errors of the adjusted geopotential numbers in the separate variants revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between the results, yielded in the second and the third variant. However, these variants produced 3-5 times increase of the accuracy in comparison to the classical first variant. The best results were obtained in the second variant with IAHW, where the mean value of the standard errors of the adjusted geopotential numbers is below 1.4 mgpu.</p> Vasil Cvetkov Copyright (c) 2024 Vasil Cvetkov https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 187–194 187–194 10.29227/IM-2024-01-20 Przewidywanie dyfuzyjności termicznej na podstawie prędkości P-fal i oceny porowitości dla zbiorników piaskowca https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/505 <p>Petrophysical heterogeneities of sandstone reservoirs which are generated by rock internal variability resounded to the magnitude of the rock thermal diffusivity. This is expected mostly to variation of rock density, porosity, reservoir temperature and its thermal conductivity. New methodology for calculating thermal diffusivity in a sandstone rock formation is intended and effectively employed some laboratory thermophysical measurements for sandstone reservoirs. The proposed petrophysical model establishes thermal diffusivity if both the effective porosity and acoustic (compressional) wave velocity of the rock are known. Some reliable petrophysical models (El Sayed, 2011 and Ahmed, 2019) concerned to both the Baharyia (Egypt) and Szolnok (Hungary) sandstone formations are used with only some modifications to build an innovative nomography. It permitted precise quantification and determination of the thermal diffusivity for both dry and saturated sandstone samples normalized to reservoir temperature (300K-1060 K). Verification of the proposed model is achieved with applying study cases of laboratory measured thermophysical properties (i.e., porosity, thermal diffusivity/or conductivity and longitudinal wave velocity) for different sandstone types, geological ages and geographic locations. A regression analysis of thermal diffusivity between laboratory measured and predicted data for dry (Ҡ-dry) rock samples yield a plausible coefficient of correlations as (R =0.73; 0.86 and 0.98) for three different sandstones obtained from Permo-Carboniferous in Germany (Aretz, 2016) and of dissimilar geologic age in Switzerland (Pimienta, 2018) respectively while, the average standard error equals 0.011. Then again, the laboratory measured and predicted thermal diffusivity (Ҡ-sat) of saturated samples display an appropriate coefficient of correlation (R = 0.76) and average standard error (0.0089).</p> Abdel Moktader A. El Sayed Nahla A. El Sayed Copyright (c) 2024 Abdel Moktader A. El Sayed,Nahla A. El Sayed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 1 1 115–123 115–123 10.29227/IM-2024-01-14 Innowacyjne podejście metodologiczne do badania starożytnej zaprawy hydroizolacyjnej cystern zamku Sagunto https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/513 <p>In this work, we present the results of the chemical, mineralogical and colorimetric characterization of the waterproofing mortars from the ancient cisterns of the Sagunto Castle (Valencia, Spain). The fortress presents 2500 years of human occupation and, given the lack of natural water sources, collecting and storing rain water was mandatory ever since. Nowadays, several cisterns are found in the hill, and thus the application of analytical approaches can help in characterizing each layer within the cultural phases of the Castle’s history (Iberian, Punic, Roman, Islamic, Medieval, Modern or Contemporary). Mineralogical analyses were carried out employing X-ray diffractometry and mid-infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy, and, on the other hand, the portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was employed to obtain the concentrations of major and minor chemical elements. Colour features of the samples were identified by smartphone photo processing to observe possible relation between colour and waterproofing mortar compounds. Last, Raman spectroscopy was employed to analyze the different phases present in the samples. Multivariate statistics were employed to identify different waterproofing mortar layers and develop hypotheses concerning different construction phases and compare their manufacturing processes. Analytical results allowed to find common patterns among different cisterns and mortar layers, and colorimetric analyses showed good potential as an additional fast, cheap and non-destructive source of information for studying these types of samples.</p> Roberto Sáez-Hernández Gianni Gallello Iván Fumadó Ortega Marco Lezzerini Stefano Pagnotta M. Luisa Cervera Ángel Morales-Rubio Copyright (c) 2024 Roberto Sáez-Hernández,Gianni Gallello,Iván Fumadó Ortega,Marco Lezzerini,Stefano Pagnotta,M. Luisa Cervera,Ángel Morales-Rubio https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 195–201 195–201 10.29227/IM-2024-01-21 Analiza naprężeń w żelbetowych filarach w zależności od sztywności podłoża gruntowego https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/514 <p>The paper presents a numerical analysis of the internal forces in the wall pillars of an apartment building. The analysis was done with different types of elastic support of the structure. Elastic support of the structure was implemented using a foundation plate on flexible subsoil. In the conclusion, different values of internal forces are analyzed.</p> Norbert Jendzelovsky Copyright (c) 2024 Norbert Jendzelovsky https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 203–209 203–209 10.29227/IM-2024-01-22 Zastosowanie predykcyjnych zależności efektów pęcznienia dla podłoży drogowych https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/515 <p>Impact of swelling can be observed in a wide range of civil and engineering structures. In the case of swelling in the subsoil of roadbeds, the destruction of the road pavement in cuts or collapse of slopes of cut is a frequent occurrence. Problems with deformation from swelling can also occur in the case of bridge abutments based on pile trestles. The unpleasant fact is that the impact of swelling can occur even after a long time. In the case of roads, high swelling pressures can lead to total destruction of the structure of the pavement even after years of operation. The susceptibility of soil to swelling can be described using swelling parameters. These parameters can be measured directly in the laboratory and in situ or indirectly estimated from empirical correlations. The paper describes the prediction of swelling processes using indirect measurements based on the methodology "Identification and solution of problems of soils prone to swelling" certified by the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic.</p> Jan Pruška Miroslav Šedivý Veronika Pavelcová Copyright (c) 2024 Jan Pruška,Miroslav Šedivý,Veronika Pavelcová https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 211–216 211–216 10.29227/IM-2024-01-23 Bimodalność i długoterminowe trendy wartości ekstremalnych temperatury powietrza https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/516 <p>Histograms of air temperature with a bimodal shape are commonly observed in many regions of the world. In this study, we investigate the causes of bimodality in the histograms of daily temperature series (minimum, average, and maximum) for selected climatological stations in Slovakia. Our findings suggest that in the Central European region, the bimodal shape of air temperature histograms is mainly due to the latent heat of freezing, as the surface of snow and ice and the air are thermally coupled. The asymmetry in the air temperature histograms is due to the lower mass heat capacity of ice compared to water and air. The energy-intensive latent heat of conversion of ice to water (and vice versa) results in the more frequent occurrence of ground-layer air temperatures around the freezing point, leading to the formation of the observed local maximum. This has far-reaching implications, such as the calculation of the annual mean air temperature at climatological stations. When calculating the average air temperature, negative temperatures should be given less weight than positive temperatures. Temperatures around 0-6°C should be given higher weight. This may also explain why Arctic regions are experiencing more significant warming than equatorial regions. In the second part of this paper, we analyze the long-term trends of selected temperature indices for the climatological station at Hurbanovo (Slovakia) from 1871 to 2020. Our results indicate statistically significant changes in all temperature indices, with indices related to cold temperatures increasing more significantly than those associated with high temperatures. Finally, study examines theoretical probability distributions to estimate T-year temperatures for temperature indices at the Hurbanovo climate station in Slovakia. The analysis includes three time periods (1901–1960, 1961–2020, and 1991–2020) and reveals significant changes in temperature indices at the Hurbanovo station. The 100-year temperature of TN,min was –35.75°C in 1901–1960, –28.69°C in 1961–2020, and –26.52°C in 1991–2020. The 100-year temperature of TX,max was 39.4°C in 1901–1960 and 39.63°C in 1961–2020. TN,min showed the most significant changes, with the 100-year temperature increasing by up to 7.06°C in 1961–2020 and up to 9.23°C in 1991–2020.</p> Ján Pekár Pavla Pekárová Pavol Miklánek Copyright (c) 2024 Ján Pekár,Pavla Pekárová,Pavol Miklánek https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 217–227 217–227 10.29227/IM-2024-01-24 Rozpoznawanie materiałów budowlanych i ekstrakcja cech przy użyciu małego czujnika CCD oraz technik analizy obrazu i klastrowania https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/517 <p>Heritage Building material recognition is the process of classifying building materials based on their visual appearance. It is important in construction, urban planning, and archaeology. Image analysis is a common approach, starting with acquiring RGB images, then extracting features using techniques such as colour histograms and texture analysis, and clustering the materials into groups using algorithms like k-means. Finally, the materials are classified into categories using classifiers like decision trees, SVM, or neural networks. Image analysis is a useful tool for building material recognition, as it allows for accurate classification of building materials based on their visual characteristics.</p> Stefano Pagnotta Danis Ionut Filimon Gianni Gallello Marco Lezzerini Copyright (c) 2024 Stefano Pagnotta,Danis Ionut Filimon,Gianni Gallello,Marco Lezzerini https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 229–236 229–236 10.29227/IM-2024-01-25 Zbieranie danych przestrzennych za pomocą bezzałogowego statku powietrznego https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/518 <p>The paper briefly discusses the nature and advantages of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as a spatial data acquisition method. This method and its possibilities are subject of scientific research in the area of geodesy, cadaster, architecture, construction of infrastructure objects and facilities, agricultural activities, cultural and historical heritage and even more over the last decades. This publication discusses in short, the principles and possibilities for creating a three-dimensional data model using the advantages of unmanned aerial vehicle. The building of University of Architecture, civil engineering and geodesy, situated in Semkovo resort, Blagoevgrad district is selected for the purpose of the task. Classical land surveying measurements with a total station and the data collected with an unmanned aerial vehicle are used for the creation of the three-dimensional model. A comparison and evaluation of the obtained model is made. The result of this evaluation indicates that the technology of unmanned aerial vehicle is efficient for representation of high-quality data with a wide scope of advantages such as high range, fast data collecting and processing.</p> Gabriela Simeonova Gergana Antova Christina Mickrenska Copyright (c) 2024 Gabriela Simeonova,Gergana Antova,Christina Mickrenska https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 237–245 237–245 10.29227/IM-2024-01-26 Kryteria projektowania sieci dróg rowerowych z wykorzystaniem GIS, niwelacji topograficznej i analizy przestrzennej https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/519 <p>The current need for the creation of cycleways in traditional cities often presents problems. Converting existing roads into cycleways frequently creates serious traffic issues without leading to the expected increase in bicycle use. In order to overcome some of these problems, this paper presents a composite methodology using GIS, topographic levelling and spatial analysis. Upon application of this methodology in a case study in the city of Patras, Greece, problems with the city’s existing, recently-constructed cycleway are identified. After applying topographical, qualitative and population criteria, an alternative network of cycleways is proposed. This proposed new network does not create traffic congestion, as the basic criterion for selecting roads is their low traffic load. At the same time, topographic leveling is employed to select routes with a very low gradient (&lt;2%), which is a determining factor in making the network attractive to users. Using spatial analysis, the network is spread in order to serve all areas of the city, making it available to the vast majority of residents. Finally, the findings of a social research poll (through the use of a questionnaire) indicate that the creation of such a network could increase bicycle use by a factor of up to18, which would make bicycles the main mode of transport for 22% of residents.</p> Sotiris Lycourghiotis Elizabeth Paraskevi Crawford Copyright (c) 2024 Sotiris Lycourghiotis,Elizabeth Paraskevi Crawford https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 247–253 247–253 10.29227/IM-2024-01-27 Modelowanie cyfrowe w celu przewidywania zagrożenia osuwania się gruntu na wybranym obszarze; Przypadek testowy Ponzano (Włochy) https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/520 <p>Creating a digital model is one of the aims of the geotechnical engineers, to predict the land sliding hazard which occur in different regions in the world. In February 2017, an extensive landslide occurred in the hamlet of Ponzano as a sloped area in the Abruzzo region in Italy. In this regard, predicting the land sliding hazard is one of the important issues to prevent hazard to the civilizations. In this project we created a model in the 3D dimension through the Plaxis 3D numerical solution software from the data based of the region Abruzzo in 2007 to evaluate the land sliding hazard before happened and then compare the results with the data from the drone data surveyed recently in the 2022. In this regard, the data from the Abruzzo resources from 2007 imported into the QGIS as the open-source cross-platform software to analysis the geospatial data and then imported into the Recap software to work on the point cloud data and then imported into the Civil 3D software to create a solid surface from the TIN surface and finally since the solid surface contains a large number of irrelative details, they were imported into the Rhinoceros software to create a NURBS surface to be smoothed for better performance in the analysis. The NURBS surface imported into the Plaxis and all of the geometry and geotechnical engineering parameters by considering the investigated geotechnical survey that was conducted in parallel in the area, defined for the model. The “Hardening Soil” model considered for the 1st layer as the “clay and lime” and the “Hoek-Brown” model defined for the 2nd layer as the “marl-flysch”. A fine mesh elements distribution assessed also for the model. The phases defined as the “gravity” to define the unit weight of the soil layers, the “plastic” phase to calculate the instant deformations and the “consolidation” to analyze the plastic deformations in the sloped area of the model. In parallel, the drone data achieved in 2022, were imported into the CloudCompare as the 3D point cloud processing software and different methods such as the “segment”, “statistical outlier Filter”, “CSF filter”, “noise filter”, “cross section” etc. were performed to clean the data and then imported into the Recap software to work on data and then imported into the Civil 3D software to create solid surface of the current data after the land sliding. In this regard, to evaluate the displacement occurred from the year 2007 toward the 2022, a TIN volume surface as the colored map created through the Civil 3D software to show the displacements in the z direction and all of the results were compared with the Plaxis 3D numerical solution software. The results showed that the colored map with the displacement in the positive and negative direction of the z is the same of the analyzed model and the values match each other’s and we created a digital model of the selected area to predict the land sliding hazard in the region in the following.</p> Antonio Pasculli Nicola Sciarra Amir Farshadfar Copyright (c) 2024 Antonio Pasculli,Nicola Sciarra,Amir Farshadfar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 255–262 255–262 10.29227/IM-2024-01-28 Dyspersja metanu w zamkniętych obudowach https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/521 <p>The increase of the population also involve the increase of the consumption of raw materials. This requires the diversification and development of industrial processes in semi-enclosed or open spaces. The carrying out of human activities of an industrial nature involves the accidental use, handling or presence of explosive substances such as methane. The presence of this gas in closed or semi-closed spaces can generate explosion phenomena. The accumulation of methane in narrow spaces is well studied and known, but the dispersion and especially the dispersion dynamics of methane released from a source considered infinite is less known. Knowing how methane disperses into the air is very important for establishing preventive measures. The paper presents the experiment on the dynamics of methane dispersion in a closed enclosure.</p> Cioclea Doru Ianc Nicolae Boantă Corneliu Matei Adrian Drăgoescu Răzvan Copyright (c) 2024 Cioclea Doru,Ianc Nicolae,Boantă Corneliu,Matei Adrian,Drăgoescu Răzvan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 263–274 263–274 10.29227/IM-2024-01-29 Oszacowanie współczynnika konwersji między przewodnością elektryczną a całkowitą zawartością rozpuszczonych ciał stałych w wodach powierzchniowych Žitného ostrova https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/522 <p>The aim of this contribution was to analyse the worsening.water quality problem, factors affecting this process, its consequences and possibilities of prevention. Evaluating a water worsening state of surface water in Žitný ostrov region (Danube Lowland, Slovakia) following the assessment of the physical-chemical and microbiological indicators, with regards of international and national legislative for the water quality status. The study was focused on the surface water pollution of Žitný ostrov channel network. Monitoring and assessment of following indicators were performed – temperature (t), dissolved oxygen (O2), chemical oxygen consumption (CHSKCr), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), specific conductivity (SPC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total nitrogen (NTOT), nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3-), nitrite nitrogen (N-NO2-), ammonia nitrogen (N-NH4+), total phosphorus (PTOT), phosphate phosphorus (P-PO43-). In most surface waters these include the cations Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and the anions Cl–, HCO3–, SO42–. Estimations of total dissolved solids (TDS) content are commonly based on electrical conductivity (EC) measurements, using a conversion factors (f) retrieved from regulations or guidelines. This paper determinate a conversion factor parameters as a case study to identify if reported conversion factors of Žitný ostrov surface waters are valid.</p> Viera Kováčová Copyright (c) 2024 Viera Kováčová https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 275–285 275–285 10.29227/IM-2024-01-30 Wytwarzanie ochronnych struktur kompozytowych za pomocą technologii infuzji w celu zapewnienia odporności na fale uderzeniowe https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/523 <p>The paper presents the results of experiments on the use of infusion of polymer binders into a pre-constructed skeleton of reinforcing structures. Currently, three-layer structures with an average layer of aluminum honeycombs are considered to be one of the effective structural elements that ensure the damping of the blast wave. As an alternative middle layer, it is possible to offer elements of various shapes (cylinders, cubes, etc.) and geometries made of modern composites that are well-proven under the impact of a shock wave. These are, as is known, metal-polymer composites, i.e. materials containing, in addition to polymer binder and fabric filler, thin layers of metal. In order to form a solid structure that perceives an explosive load, an attempt was made to use RFI technology to obtain individual elements with which two steel sheets are connected. Aramid, glass fabrics and aluminum thin (0.5, 0.15, 0.05 mm) plates were used in the experiments. For the implementation of the infusion process, an epoxy resin was used, suitable in its technological parameters for this process. The use of this resin leads to the minimization of non-nourished areas and pores. In this case, the uniformity of the product obtained from the composite material is achieved. It should be added that RFI technology differs from other polymer processing technologies in the following significant advantages: the possibility of abandoning expensive equipment, reducing energy costs for equipment and its maintenance, and complete rejection of the use of prepregs. However, there are a number of difficulties that are associated with the technological process of infusion, these primarily include the rheological requirements of the binder: at room temperature, the resin should have a low viscosity, and in the practice of fillers, the viscosity should have rather low values. Below are some preliminary plans for the development of this technology in order to obtain a product that provides attenuation of the blast wave.</p> Nikoloz Chikhradze Guram Abashidze Davit Tsverava Sophiko Kvinikadze Copyright (c) 2024 Nikoloz Chikhradze,Guram Abashidze,Davit Tsverava,Sophiko Kvinikadze https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 287–292 287–292 10.29227/IM-2024-01-31 Geometryczne dane niwelacyjne i niektóre błędy systematyczne w ich przetwarzaniu https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/524 <p>The aim of this article is to illuminate some latent systematic faults in the mathematical treatment of precise levelling data. The first one is associated with the use of the average of both measurements of the height differences between the terminal benchmarks in levelling lines. Another weak point in the classical treatment of levelling data is the incomplete minimization of the impact of the spatial network configuration on the produced mean standard errors of the nodal benchmarks from the adjustment. Generating sixty random paired samples of size 1000, derived from three continuous distributions, e.g. Normal (0, 1), Uniform (-1.732, 1.732) and Gamma (1, 1), it was found that the average of two same distributed and ordered observations is very nearby to the theoretical expectation, in comparison to both observations, only in approximately 27-30% of all cases. Contrary, in other 70-74% of cases, either the “first” or the “second” observation is in close proximity to the expectation. The miss of this fact leads to a statistically significant deterioration of the final accuracy of the levelling networks. In the current study, it is also shown that the minimization of the standard errors of the adjusted normal heights of the nodal benchmarks in the Bulgarian Levelling Network 1980 cannot be achieved with the weights w=const.L-1, which are the most popular and used type of weights in the adjustment of geometric levelling networks. Finally, it is illustrated that taking into account the above marks and applying an appropriate adjustment algorithm, the mean of the standard errors of the adjusted heights of the nodal benchmarks in the analysed network is possible to be less than 1mm. The standard error of the adjusted height of the most remoted benchmark “Pushkarov”, which is 598 km far away from the datum point located in Varna, is equal to 1.40mm. The obtained from the adjustment mean standard error for the weight unit is estimated to be 0.164 mm/√km. In comparison, the adjustment mean standard error for the weight unit, but yielded by the classical approach of adjustment of the analysed network, is 1.289 mm/√km or almost 9 times higher. Despite being tedious and time-consuming, it is not on point of discarding the precise geometric levelling as a main geodetic method for solving of a couple of scientific and engineering tasks, where differences in heights have to be determined with the highest accuracy.</p> Vasil Cvetkov Copyright (c) 2024 Vasil Cvetkov https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 293–300 293–300 10.29227/IM-2024-01-32 Geotechnologie stosowane w konstrukcjach antropomorficznych: Wykorzystanie georadaru do wykrywania problemów strukturalnych, przyczyn i skutków - studium przypadku w Coimbrze w Portugalii https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/525 <p>One of the recurrent problems in civil construction concerns the wear and deterioration of structures due to their use over time. There should be a plan for monitoring the structures to assess and quantify anomalies, which will allow the minimization and rehabilitation measures to be carried out in advance. This study aimed to use geotechnologies, specifically the Ground Probing Radar (GPR), to identify and quantify the damage caused using a swimming pool inserted in a structure built on a residential property. The methodology comprised the use of georradar Sensors &amp; Software PulseEKKO GPR for data acquisition. The data were processed in the software EKKO Project considering the following parameters: 1- Grain/Filter: Dewow + SEC2 Gain (Attenuation:10.00 Start Gain:4.00 Maximum Gain: 950). Seven acquisition profiles were performed: 3 on the East side, 2 on the South side, and 2 on the West side of the pool, with a spacing between 0.8 m. From the visualization of the processed radargrams, and the slices elaborated for each profile with a color palette corresponding to the obtained reflectance values, it was possible to identify the underlying structures of the pavement of the edge of the pool such as beams, beam frames, slope, interior space of the support structure and, most importantly, the degree of subsoil materials alteration, depth, and dispersion of water infiltrations. On the East side, the pool is inserted into the rock formation; it is possible to identify up to 1 m depth of the water infiltration and dispersion. To the West and South, the pool is supported by a built-up structure; underneath there is a hall and the engine room. In these places, the infiltration and dispersion of water were identified until approximately 0.7 m depth, as well as the existing structures and their condition. The 0.7 m corresponds to the thickness of the existing slab and beams. Based on these results, an intervention plan was prepared for the rehabilitation of the deterioration of the materials and the minimization of water percolation through the waterproofing of the pool's surrounding areas.</p> João Duarte José Carvalho Joana Ribeiro Copyright (c) 2024 João Duarte,José Carvalho,Joana Ribeiro https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 301–308 301–308 10.29227/IM-2024-01-33 Geoturystyczne aspekty miejscowości uzdrowiskowej UNESCO Mariańskie Łaźnie https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/526 <p>The West Bohemian spa triangle is an area with a rich occurrence of mineral springs, which are found on a relatively small area. It includes Mariánské Lázně, Karlovy Vary and Františkovy Lázně. These spas are among the most important spa towns of global importance. This fact is also evidenced by the fact that this spa area was registered in 2021 on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The cities of this triangle are unique not only in terms of balneology, but also in terms of architecture. Even though Mariánské Lázně is the youngest of these cities, some important visitors have ranked it among the most beautiful of them. Many healing springs were responsible for the rapid development of this city. This article describes the interconnectedness of both geological and selected architectural attractions that can be the target of tourist activities in this city.</p> Miloš Duraj Marian Marschalko Dominik Niemiec Jan Kubáč Radek Pohanka David Sysala Jindřich Vlček Erik Sombathy Copyright (c) 2024 Miloš Duraj,Marian Marschalko,Dominik Niemiec,Jan Kubáč,Radek Pohanka,David Sysala,Jindřich Vlček,Erik Sombathy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 309–315 309–315 10.29227/IM-2024-01-34 Memrystor na bazie HfO2-HfOx z warstwami aktywnymi o różnych rozmiarach https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/527 <p>Memristore parameters are strongly depend on the size of active layers. In this paper is reported the outcomes of memristore created with different size active layers. There are considered 1μ, 5μ and 10μ diameter separated devices in the form of crossbar with HfO2 + HfOx active layer and tungsten top contact, titanium nitride botton contact and aluminum wiring contact. As substrate was used sapphire and active layers of memristore was deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering technology. With photolithography exposure system by new pothomask has been done 1μ, 5μ and 10μ diameter lithography for formation active layers and all contacts. Leakage currents dropped to 0.01mA, increased cicles of histeresis of I-V curves and dramatically increased Roff /Ron ratio to be 100000.</p> Amiran Bibilashvili Zurab Kushitashvili Larisa Jangidze Copyright (c) 2024 Amiran Bibilashvili,Zurab Kushitashvili,Larisa Jangidze https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 317–321 317–321 10.29227/IM-2024-01-35 Łączność hydrologiczna, strukturalna i ekologiczna funkcjonalność meandrującego ekosystemu delty Dunaju https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/528 <p>The pressure control of the climate change and anthropogenic factors have consequences on the ecological systems, generating structural changes. The abiotic (i.e., water hydrology and hydraulics, sediment load, water physic-chemistry) and biotic (i.e., biodiversity, structure and functionality of food webs) characteristics of river-channels-lakes from deltas depend on several factors; however, the main driver of these characteristics is represented by the hydrologic connectivity with the main stem of the river. Floodplain lakes can be permanently, temporarily or disconnected with the main stem of the river producing interruptions in the transfer of fresh water and thus affecting benthic macroinvertebrates, by decrease in their population, diversity and even loss of sensitive taxa. Multidisciplinary investigations (hydrodynamics, sedimentological and ecological measurements and analyses) were made to investigate a river-channel-lake site type situated on the St. George branch formed by a cutoff meander (Mahmudia meander), a connective channel (Uzlina Canal) and a lake (Uzlina Lake) to observe how much the fresh water and sediment input to the delta depressions is affected by the structural changes of the meander physiography. The Mahmudia meander was rectified 40 years ago and the response of the channel consisted in a very fast silting of the former meander, currently receiving less than 5% of the upstream water and sediment discharge. The lateral connectivity with the deltaic depressions thought the lateral canals is compromised.</p> Laura Duţu Florin Duţu Ana-Bianca Pavel Irina Catianis Dan Vasiliu Naliana Lupaşcu Ion Stănescu Copyright (c) 2024 Laura Duţu,Florin Duţu,Ana-Bianca Pavel,Irina Catianis,Dan Vasiliu,Naliana Lupaşcu,Ion Stănescu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 323–328 323–328 10.29227/IM-2024-01-36 Modelowanie informacyjne historycznych budynków wybranych obiektów dziedzictwa kulturowego w regionie Morawy https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/529 <p>Due to current legislation, a local public body is obliged to preserve as-built documentation of its buildings. A form of as-built documentation has been currently transforming according to building information modelling methodology. As-built documentation of listed buildings is an important step in preserving cultural heritage and allows preserving as much information as possible about immovable cultural monuments for future generations. Currently, building information models (BIM) of the real estate cultural heritage objects are being produced due to digitizing and conserving entire buildings with all the construction details with respect to culture heritage needs. Land surveyors are responsible for data acquisition at the building site to deliver geometrically accurate and precise 3D spatial data for the following modelling process as well as georeferencing data to appropriate datum and reference coordinate system. The 3D spatial data is primarily represented by a point cloud acquired by laser scanning technology. Historic buildings typically contain unique construction elements of very different and often more complex geometric shapes, such as arches, columns, statues, attics, etc. Such elements need to be individually modelled from the point cloud with respect to the precision of the model. The modelling process of existing historic building elements becomes far more demanding than the design of the future building. Building elements for new buildings are available in the construction products BIM database for information modelling. n the other hand, a certain degree of generalisation must always be considered when modelling historical buildings. The building elements are more of an aesthetic nature. Hence, the modelling process needs to cover the geometrical shape of the element, construction assembly as well as material definition. The resulting model of the element is geometrically and visually affected by a generalization of spatial information. Nowadays, game development environment tools are increasingly used outside the video game industry, especially in architecture/construction/engineering, automotive, virtual production, etc. Thus, the information model can be delivered to a broader audience of stakeholders without vendor-locked software restrictions. Simultaneously, culture heritage value can be provided to the public in an immersive way. This paper discusses in which cases generalization in the sense of the level of information needed (LOIN) is involved and when it is already a geometric error of modelling regarding the needs of the public body and specification of public procurement. In this paper, the matters mentioned above are described using several case studies of the creation of an information model of listed buildings, namely the Maxmilian’s Court in Kroměříž and the Parish office in Cetkovice.</p> Michal Kuruc Tomáš Volařík Ondřej Vystavěl Alena Berková Martin Chladil Copyright (c) 2024 Michal Kuruc,Tomáš Volařík,Ondřej Vystavěl,Alena Berková,Martin Chladil https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 329–336 329–336 10.29227/IM-2024-01-37 Krajobrazowo-botaniczna metoda strefowania roślinności w Rosji https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/530 <p>Geobotanical zoning is a recognized method for displaying regional features of vegetation cover. It is based on the properties of the vegetation itself. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the expediency of the landscape approach, which is implemented in the landscape-botanical method of zoning. The latter is based on the close connection of regional features of vegetation with landscapes. This method allows us to most fully consider the problem of studying the vegetation cover, both from a geographical and botanical point of view.</p> Kirill M. Petrov Alexander S. Evdokimov Copyright (c) 2024 Kirill M. Petrov,Alexander S. Evdokimov https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 337–340 337–340 10.29227/IM-2024-01-38 Lokalizacja wlotów kratek ściekowych w celu zapewnienia skutecznego odwodnienia ulic w procesie projektowania ulic i planów nawierzchni w Bułgarii https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/531 <p>This study analyses the existing requirements and standards for determining the locations of grate inlets on streets in Bulgaria. Effective drainage in street design is essential for managing stormwater runoff and preventing urban areas from flooding during heavy rains. To choose optimal locations of grate inlets plays a crucial role in this process. Solving this task is related with designing street slopes in grading plans and designing sewer systems. This article presents an approach, based on successful practices used in the USA and Australia, by proposing a hydraulic based procedure for locating grate inlets in the design process. The technique is adopted to all Bulgarian requirements and standards. As a main criterion it is suggested to use the maximum allowable water spread on the pavement of the traffic lanes. The proposed method considers various factors, such as longitudinal and cross slope, size of grate inlet, design frequency period, intercepted and bypass flow. It starts with determination of the grate inlet locations on continuous grade, then incorporates the specific sag points in vertical curves and intersections. It can be used in the process of designing streets and their grading plans to optimize the drainage efficiency of streets in Bulgaria. It is hydraulic reasoned, very flexible, and easy to apply for different street sections with different features. Implementing this approach can solve the problem of unclarity in locating grate inlets in Bulgaria. Also, the presented procedure could be used as a base to fill gaps in the existing Bulgarian regulations and manuals, related to the drainage of streets in urban areas.</p> Emiliya Ilieva Copyright (c) 2024 Emiliya Ilieva https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 341–349 341–349 10.29227/IM-2024-01-39 Cechy mineralogiczno-petrograficzne i właściwości fizyko-mechaniczne piaskowca Macigno w rejonie Vellano (Pistoia, Toskania, Włochy) https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/532 <p>The sandstones belonging to the terrigenous deposits of the Macigno Formation (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) were widely used as building stones in Tuscany (Italy) for the wide distribution of their outcrops and the good qualities of the extracted stone. This research reports the petrographic and mineralogical data, and the physical and mechanical test values collected to evaluate the main technical properties of the Macigno sandstones from the Vellano area, with the purpose of comparing the quality of the stones extracted in this area with those from other quarries in north-western Tuscany. The results, obtained analysing 21 samples from the Vellano quarry and its surroundings, show that sandstones cropping out here are characterized by medium to medium-fine sand-sized grains made up of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclases, phyllosilicates, lithic fragments, and accessory. Clayey materials and calcite are present as matrix and cement, respectively. The clay fraction is made up of mica-like minerals, chlorite, chlorite/smectite interlayers and, in some samples, corrensite and kaolinite. From the physical and mechanical point of view the analysed samples show low porosity and high flexural and compressive strengths. Compared to the other Macigno sandstone samples from north-western Tuscany, the best samples of Vellano stone show rather comparable mechanical resistance than those quarried at Matraia in Lucca province, which today is another active quarry of sure interest for the good quality of the extracted material.</p> Marco Lezzerini Andrea Aquino Claudio Di Petta Gianni Gallello Stefano Pagnotta Copyright (c) 2024 Marco Lezzerini,Andrea Aquino,Claudio Di Petta,Gianni Gallello,Stefano Pagnotta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 351–360 351–360 10.29227/IM-2024-01-40 Sieci neuronowe do mapowania archeologicznych artefaktów litowych https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/533 <p>An analytical non-destructive strategy to chemically characterize lithic artefacts has been developed. Around 100 archaeological lithic materials found in Neolithic-Chalcolithic sites in the Mediterranean region of the Iberian Peninsula and nowadays stored in different museums of the Valencian Community (Spain), were studied. The materials belong to different typologies of rock (diabase, sillimanite, ophite and amphibolite) and were analysed employing portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (pXRF) directly in the rock surface. The obtained data were processed through neural networks protocol, specifically the so-called Kohonen networks or Self Organised Maps (SOM), to map the geologic samples. This self-organized topological feature maps are suitable to deal with multidimensional representations and map them in a two-dimensional space of neurons, following an unsupervised learning protocol. SOM is used to reduce multidimensional data onto lower-dimensional spaces and clustering procedures. As a result, SOM create spatially organized representations, which enhance the discovery of correlations between data. In this case the method has enabled the evaluation of elemental markers related to each rock type behaving as a fine hidden pattern detector and so understand the possible advantages and disadvantages of the analytical method employed to define provenance issues. The attribution suggested by statistics is mainly driven by the composition of rocks essential minerals which are linked to the different petrogenetic conditions. The results showed that in most of the cases the distribution and dispersion of the chemical profile depend of the kind of rock, and clearly suggest that a good way to identify stone tools raw material procurement is to look for elemental markers, being the prior step to create an approximation to ancient exchange networks and their evolution in a diachronic axis.</p> Joaquín Jiménez-Puerto Gianni Gallello Teresa Orozco Copyright (c) 2024 Joaquín Jiménez-Puerto,Gianni Gallello,Teresa Orozco https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 361–367 361–367 10.29227/IM-2024-01-41 Precyzyjne wyznaczanie geodezyjne w budowie obiektów inżynierskich z orientacją w określonym kierunku https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/534 <p>In the construction practice, there are engineering structures, where some complex requirements in the process of their building have to be meet, e.g., their positioning, geographical orientation and geometric determination. The current publication examines the specificity of geodetic activities, regarding the orientating of the main construction axes of the foundation and the supporting structures of the terrestrial telecommunication antennas in a predetermined direction, for example, in the parallel direction to the geographical meridian. The focus is on the assessment of the accuracy and the choice of appropriate methods and equipment in order to create the required geodetic network, as well as to perform accurate setting out works. The combination of demands, namely for a specific geographic orientation and precise relative accuracy of the setting elements, implies a suitable transition from the ellipsoidal geodetic coordinates to the projection plane of the setting out project. In this connection, the influence of the meridian convergence on the accuracy of the planning setting out works is examined. A mathematical approach is proposed to assess the need of elimination of this factor, depending on the value of the constructional tolerance and the geographic location of the site.The necessary precision for determining the geodetic ellipsoidal coordinates by GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) measurements as well as the required accuracy of the planning and elevation setting out works are shown.Using different geodetic methods and tools, a preliminary accuracy assessment approach and the choice of the appropriate coordinate projection and height reference system is also proposed. The real data, which were obtained in different Earth’s locations by the explained methodology, are presented. The established geodetic networks provide orientation of the main construction axes of the bases of the terrestrial communication antennas in the parallel direction to the geodetic meridian with an azimuth standard error - МА = ± 2÷5' (minutеs) and allowable error in distances and eleventions of the setting out elements, respectively - MdS ≤ ±3 mm, Mdh ≤ ± 2 mm.</p> Antonio Angelov Copyright (c) 2024 Antonio Angelov https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 369–377 369–377 10.29227/IM-2024-01-42 Stabilizacja zboczy podatnych na osuwiska za pomocą kotew rurowych https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/535 <p>This paper presents an anchor of a new design, whose properties have been selected to retain the advantages of a tubular anchor over the other anchor types and at the same time, ensure its adaptation to specific conditions associated with slope stabilization. The proposed anchor consists of a steel tube filled with expanding cement mortar. The outer diameter of the tube is 2-3 mm less than the diameter of the borehole, a groove is cut on the outer surface of the tube. A metal rod is placed in the center of the tube at the outer end of which a support plate is installed, and a tie wrench is fixed. The length of the metal rod is equal to the depth of the bore hole, while the length of the steel tube is at least half the length of the borehole. In the process of solidification and expansion of the solution, pressure is created on the walls of the bore hole. Under the influence of pressure, the pipe is opened around the groove and close contact is achieved between the pipe and the borehole surfaces. As soon as the solution hardens, the steel tube is firmly embedded in the concrete, after which the anchor reaches operational capacity. Preliminary tests of the proposed anchor showed that it has a high clamping force (for hard rock conditions - 46-75 kN/m and for soft rock conditions 32-36 kN/m). He has other advantages, namely it does not require special equipment for installation, the inside of a tube is filled with hard concrete-like mass, which hampers the process of corrosion and increases shear strength.</p> Edgar Mataradze Nikoloz Chikhradze Tamaz Akhvlediani Copyright (c) 2024 Edgar Mataradze,Nikoloz Chikhradze,Tamaz Akhvlediani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 379–384 379–384 10.29227/IM-2024-01-43 Badanie efektu dławienia w pożarze tunelu https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/536 <p>As per the emergency ventilation strategy, air velocity of 3 m/s in case of the longitudinal ventilation is sufficient for smoke control in all fire conditions. Numerical experiments were carried out with FDS software to estimate the numerical value of the critical velocity. Numerical models were realized in 0-6% slope tunnels with a 1% step for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 MW fires for four types of fuel: gasoline, diesel fuel, oil and firewood. The paper notes that the dynamic pressure induced by a strong fire is much higher than the static pressure of tunnel jet fans. As a result, following the algebraic summation of positively-directed ventilation flows and the negatively-directed flows induced by fire, an intense back layering occurs, which casts doubt on the suitability of the specified emergency ventilation strategy when designing the fire ventilation. The critical ventilation speed of 3 m/s cannot cope with the traction caused by fire, expressed by the ascending movement of the high-temperature and low-density combustion products. The paper discusses the numerical modelling results with an adiabatic underground heat exchange model and presents typical tunnel fire modelling plans, which correspond to an inclined tunnel for ascending and descending ventilation flows as well as a horizontal tunnel. The article gives the regularities obtained by the numerical models of changes in the variables of average air temperature and density, average carbon monoxide, average carbon dioxide and soot concentrations. According to the emergency ventilation strategy, critical velocity is an important value and a major determinant of back layering prevention in sloping tunnels. Although many papers have been devoted to this problem, the obtained results differ much. The present paper shows that strong fires induce much greater dynamic pressures than the static pressures of the tunnel jet fans are. Consequently, the flows caused by these forces, as they move in different directions, following their algebraic summation, cause a strong back-layering in case of positive ventilation flows, i.e., when the ventilation flow is descending and the fire seat is found at a lower point compared to the air supply portal. The new results can be used to develop fire ventilation plans as well as life-saving and emergency control solutions in the operating tunnels for personnel and rescuers.</p> Omar Lanchava Aleqsandre Bezhanishvili Giorgi Javakhishvili Zaza Khokerashvili Nino Arudashvili Copyright (c) 2024 Omar Lanchava,Aleqsandre Bezhanishvili,Giorgi Javakhishvili,Zaza Khokerashvili,Nino Arudashvili https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 385–393 385–393 10.29227/IM-2024-01-44 Naziemne skanowanie laserowe - wyzwania i możliwości w tworzeniu modeli 3D budynków https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/537 <p>The technology of terrestrial laser scanning and its possibilities are subject of scientific research in the area of geodesy, construction, architecture and even more over the last decades. This method provides point clouds data, which contains full and accurate representation of the geometrical parameters of the examined subject. This publication discusses in short the principles and possibilities for creating a three-dimensional data model using the advantages of terrestrial laser scanning. The building of University of Architecture, civil engineering and geodesy, situated in Semkovo resort, Blagoevgrad district is selected for the purpose of the task. Classical land surveying measurements with a total station and terrestrial laser scanning are used for the creation of the three-dimensional models. A comparison and evaluation of the obtained model is made. The result of this evaluation indicates that the technology of terrestrial laser scanning is efficient for representation of high quality data with a wide scope of advantages such as high range, fast data processing, high precision and accurate details.</p> Gergana Antova Gabriela Simeonova Christina Mickrenska Copyright (c) 2024 Gergana Antova,Gabriela Simeonova,Christina Mickrenska https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 395–404 395–404 10.29227/IM-2024-01-45 Wpływ emisji przemysłu metalurgicznego na rozwój wybranych składników depozycji atmosferycznej na terenie Koszyc (Słowacja) https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/538 <p>The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of emissions and their decrease on the level of environmental burden through the study of selected atmospheric deposition parameters in the area with the dominant source of emissions from the iron and steel production complex. Total atmospheric deposition (AD), i.e., j. both wet and dry, was sampled from eleven sampling points at a distance of 3 to 16 kilometers from the ironworks complex. AD fluxes of selected elements (Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, As) and dust particles (PM) were evaluated in relation to the amount of emissions from the results of long-term AD monitoring (2009 – 2022). The analysis shows the dominant influence of emissions from the metallurgical industry on the deposition fluxes of most of the monitored parameters and, thus, on the environmental burden of the area. The emissions have a decisive impact on the AD of manganese, iron, chromium, particulate matter, zinc, and aluminum, but also, to a lesser extent, on the AD of the other monitored elements. Correlation analysis confirmed a statistically significant dependence between the amount of emissions and the mass fluxes of AD for iron, zinc, manganese, and chromium for most of the sampling sites. The potential of immission load of the urban environment of Košice by emissions from the metallurgical industry is significantly higher in the winter due to local specific meteorological conditions. The more than sevenfold decrease in emissions significantly affected the AD of most of the monitored parameters, but their decrease was not so significant except for the AD of lead. The average AD of the elements strongly associated with ironworks emission sources, namely iron, manganese, chromium, and zinc, decreased approximately twofold. The amount of emissions is only one of several factors that affect the quantity of fluxes of the monitored AD parameters. In addition to seasonal factors, local meteorological, climatic, orographic, and other local conditions, and specifics also play an essential role.</p> Jozef Hančuľák Petra Červeňáková Oľga Šestinová Lenka Findoráková Copyright (c) 2024 Jozef Hančuľák,Petra Červeňáková,Oľga Šestinová,Lenka Findoráková https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 405–415 405–415 10.29227/IM-2024-01-46 Porównanie geologii prezentowanej na przekroju poprzecznym i obserwowanej w terenie - lekcja z odkrywki węgla brunatnego Tomisławice, Zagłębie Konińskie w Polsce Centralnej https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/539 <p>This article briefly focuses on comparing geological information shown in a cross-section with field data. An example from the Tomisławice opencast mine, where the first Mid-Polish lignite seam (MPLS-1) is currently exploited for electricity production, is used where two sites present large and even surprising differences. In the first case, they are due to technical reasons, i.e., wet drilling. The second case is most likely caused by the compaction of peat during its transformation into lignite. The obtained results clearly indicate that the actual geological structure observed in the field may differ significantly from that which is interpreted on the geological cross-sections based on borehole data.</p> Robert Wachocki Mariusz Dziamara Jakub Klęsk Marek Widera Copyright (c) 2024 Robert Wachocki,Mariusz Dziamara,Jakub Klęsk,Marek Widera https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-23 2024-06-23 1 1 417–425 417–425 10.29227/IM-2024-01-47 Mapowanie geologiczne, stratygrafia, paleontologia i mineralizacje paleozoiku wokół kamieniołomu Valério i Muzeum Trylobitów (Geopark Arouca), Canelas, Północna Portugalia https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/540 <p>The studied area, a sector in the reverse limb of the Valongo Anticline adjacent to the Museum of Trilobites and to Valério’s Quarry (Canelas, Arouca), is located in the Central-Iberian Zone of the Iberian Massif. The main objective of this study was to obtain a detailed geological map, through the recognition of the lithologies, stratigraphic units, fossils, structures and mineralizations. The Palaeozoic succession from Cambrian to Carboniferous was studied, with the exception of the Devonian, which does not outcrop in the area. Regarding lithologies, a succession of volcano sedimentary layers has been found in Cambrian (Montalto Formation, Middle Cambrian) and in the Lower Ordovician (Santa Justa Formation), either underlying Floian massive quartzites (Tremadocian?) or overlying Floian massive quartzites (Floian). At the top of the Middle Ordovician (Valongo Formation, Dapingian-Darriwilian), near the contact with the Upper Ordovician (Sobrido Formation, Hirnantian), a ferruginous layer with abundant siliceous nodules occurs. In the base of the Sobrido Formation, massive quartzites underlie diamictites. Concerning the fossil record, abundant icnofossils such as Cruziana and Planolites were identified in the quartzites of the Lower Ordovician. Also, different somatofossils occur in the Middle Ordovician slates, namely trilobites (between the largest trilobites in the world) and other arthropods, graptolites, cephalopods, brachiopods, gastropods, bivalves and echinoderms (cystoids and crinoids). In Silurian, besides quartzites (Rhuddanian), light grey slates bearing graptolites, namely Monograptus (Llandovery), are dominant. In Carboniferous (Gzhelian) breccias, sandstones and slates with plant fossils, namely with articulated plants and ferns, occur. Regarding the mineral resources of the area, beyond the slates of Middle Ordovician (Valongo Formation) exploited in Valério’s Quarry, there is a Roman mining work, the Gralheira d'Água mine (Au-As type mineralizations), associated to the Lower Ordovician (Santa Justa Formation) quartzites and volcano sedimentary layers, exploited for gold. Antimony mineralizations (Sb-Au type mineralizations) associated to the volcano-sedimentary succession of the Cambrian-Ordovician transition, were found and studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The final work resulted in a geological map, covering an area of 1200m by 900m, at a scale of 1: 3,400.</p> Manuel Figueiredo Helena Couto Manuel Valério Copyright (c) 2024 Manuel Figueiredo,Helena Couto,Manuel Valério https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 425–435 425–435 10.29227/IM-2024-01-48 Planowanie terenów rolniczych w Bułgarii - obecna funkcjonalność prawodawstwa i perspektywy https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/541 <p>Development Planning for the Agricultural Territory is a problematic activity in Bulgaria in terms of the existing legal requirements. Bulgarian legislation contains certain gaps in regulating and technically ensuring the agricultural land planning. This is well settled in relation to the other types of territories like the Urban, Forest, and Protected ones, which planning rules and activities are regulated in details. The purpose of the paper is firstly to justify the necessity of improving and detailing the legal regulations for the agricultural land development planning, and secondly to suggest some expert approaches for improving and harmonization of legislation in connection with registration of the agricultural property by Agricultural Territory Development Plan (ATDP), Restored Property Map (RPM) and Cadastral Map (CM). The current legal grounds for planning development of the agricultural land in Bulgaria are presented and analysed. Lack of detailed regulations on their scope, content and operation have been found. It is also a matter of applicability of the newly created municipal CMs in settling land relations such as purchases and sales of land, inheritances, divisions, and changing the primary purpose of use of Agricultural Territory for construction. The completeness of CM with information about the quality of agricultural lands is still not regulated by Cadaster and Property Register Act. The paper contains specific proposals for amendments in Spatial Planning Act, Cadastral and Property Registry Act and Agricultural Land Ownership and Use Act.</p> Milena Moteva Desislava Parashkevova-Simeonova Copyright (c) 2024 Milena Moteva,Desislava Parashkevova-Simeonova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 437–444 437–444 10.29227/IM-2024-01-49 Szybkie badanie potencjalnych toksycznych pierwiastków śladowych i materii organicznej w glebie miejskiej, miasto Koszyce, Słowacja https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/542 <p>Urban soil survey is necessary in terms of asses the life quality of their inhabitants. From this point of view the detection of the ecological risk in urban soils was done. At first fifteen samples were collected from a depth 0-30cm, in Košice city, Eastern Slovakia around the lake located in the residential zone. In collected samples potential toxic trace elements were established and also the presence of soil organic matter (SOM) was studied, because at present the SOM was recognized as an indicator of sustainable development in the frame of the UN Agenda 2030. SOM and soil organic carbon (SOC) have a positive effect on soil chemical, physical and biological properties. The pH of all studied samples was estimated in the range 6.83-7.42. For rapid screening were used following methods: X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. SOM was determined by calculation from the SOC amount. On the basis of XRF analysis it was found that the permitted limits for the elements Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As were largely exceeded.</p> Lenka Findoráková Oľga Šestinová Jozef Hančuľák Copyright (c) 2024 Lenka Findoráková,Oľga Šestinová,Jozef Hančuľák https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 445–451 445–451 10.29227/IM-2024-01-50 Wyniki badań glonów i sinic w różnych ekotypach gleb w Adżarii w Gruzji https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/543 <p>The publication deals with the studies on the diversity of species composition of Algae and cyanobacteria in various layers of soils (yell, red, soilsod-podzolic, marsh, urban) of the Adjara. The aim of the study was to identify and determine the composition of Algae and cyanobacteria; Establishment of the scale of development and spread of algoflora; Assessment of the ecological state of the Algae and cyanobacteria in adverse and favorable conditions. The diversity of algae and cyanobacteria was studied in soil cultures using the method of fouling glasses. Each treatment included 5 ste-rile cover glasses for micropreparations; cultures were wetted with distilled water. The presence of algoflora was detected in various soil samples based on morphological characteristics, percentage frequency, growth rate, and colony forming units. The study has found 171 species and subspecies of soil Algae and cyanobacteria, belonging to the divisions of Ochrophyta (59 species), Chlorophyta (51 species), Xanthophyta (8 species), Eustigmatophyta (1 species) and Cyanobacteria (52 species). Classes Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, and Cyanophyceae were considered polymorphic among the leaders. 11 species of algoflora involved in algoflora of the consortium have been specified as well. The most widely distributed algoflora in soil samples were of the genera Chlamydomonas (20 species), Eunotia (17 species), Phormidium (11 species), Pinnularia (11 species), Tetracystis (10 species), Leptolyngbya (9 species), Nitzschia (9 species), Chlorococcum (8) species, Nostoc (7) species and Oscillatoria (6 species) were dominant flora in all soil samples. Frequency percentage algoflor showed that from all of the soil, the maximum quantities of algoflora and cianobacteria in marsh soil that was 65.49%, in sod - podzolic soil 34.51%, in yell soil 19.88, in red soil 18.71%, the lowest frequency of occurrence of algoflora and cianobacteria was shown in urban soil 9.35%. Due to seasonal changes in soil and air temperature, there are 71 species (41.52%) in spring, 65 (38.95%) in summer, 78 (45.61%) in autumn, and 53 (30.99%) in winter. A lower level of biological activity in the urban soils was found. Morphometric trait differences in test objects activated on the soil samples have been observed. The study was found specialized species of Algal-cyanobacterial communitiesfrom each ecotype of soil. The soil samples collected from polluted sites were more affected by waste water which affected the population densities of Algal-cyanobacterial communities. Found that Adjara support a large and diverse community of Algal-cyanobacterial on soil, many species of which are previously undiscovered and undescribed. On this basis, works of longer duration and more intensive sampling are needed to obtain data regarding Algal-cyanobacterial communities, with more attention to specific variables such as microclimate, soil moisture, soil type, soil pH and vegetation types.</p> Otar Shainidze Zurab Mikeladze Merab Mamuladze Shota Lominadze Shota Lamparadze Nodar Beridze Guram Chkubadze Copyright (c) 2024 Otar Shainidze,Zurab Mikeladze,Merab Mamuladze,Shota Lominadze,Shota Lamparadze,Nodar Beridze,Guram Chkubadze https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 453–464 453–464 10.29227/IM-2024-01-51 Wykorzystanie metody radaru penetrującego grunt w badaniu gleby zanieczyszczonej węglowodorami w obszarze Navodari - Rumunia https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/544 <p>Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a very useful geophysical method for use in hydrogeologic and near-surface mapping studies. It can be used to study contaminants in groundwater, subsurface faulting, and underground cavities (natural or man-made), all of which pose potentially dangerous geological hazards. The GPR technique is similar in principle to seismic reflection and sonar techniques. The propagation of the radar signal depends on the frequency-dependent electrical properties of the ground.Electrical conductivity of the soil or rock materials along the propagation paths introduces significant absorptive losses which limit the depth of penetration into the earth formations and is primarily dependent upon the moisture content and mineralization present.Reflected signals are amplified, and transformed to the audio-frequency range, recorded, processed, and displayed. From the recorded display, subsurface features such as soil/ soil, soil/rock, and unsaturated/saturated interfaces can be identified. In addition, the presence of floating hydrocarbons on the water table, the geometry of contaminant plumes, and the location of buried cables, pipes, drums, and tanks can be detected. The GPR data are presented as a two-dimensional depth profile along a scanned traverse line in which the vertical axis is two-way travel time measured in nanoseconds. The location of hydrocarbon contamination in the ground using the GPR method is based mainly on information taken from reflected signals. In the cases investigated in Romania contaminated sites (Navodari area), such signals were very rarely recorded. A long time after spillage, contamination takes the form of plumes with different size and distribution, which depends on the geological and hydraulic properties of the ground. The survey discussed in this paper was carried out using the GPR system-Noggin with two antennas (250 and 500mHz) Data collected were processed using software(EKKO_Project™ GPR Data Analysis) to produce 2D radargram in time scale. The presence of contaminant plumes as well as the water table are observed in the GPR sections at depths approximately of 0.5 to 1.5 m. In the GPR section, the oil contaminated layer exhibits discontinuous, subparallel, and chaotic high amplitude reflection patterns. Promising results were also obtained in the GPR survey where three obvious reflection patterns representing the top sand-silt layer, oil-contaminated zone and, the underlying thick soft clay were detected in all 2D radargrams of the GPR traverse lines.</p> Anghel Sorin Copyright (c) 2024 Anghel Sorin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 465–472 465–472 10.29227/IM-2024-01-52 Wykorzystanie testów kontaktowych do oceny gleb rolniczych https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/545 <p>A soil has been of great concern throughout the world due to increasing environmental awareness and interest in the quality and management of such soils. Košice, the city in eastern Slovakia, is exposed to typical urban contamination sources such, furthermore, being the largest steel producer in Central Europe, it is long-term environmentally loaded by the iron and steel works that represent the largest source of (metallic elements) contamination in Slovakia. Five sampling sites located in the surrounding of U.S.Steel Košice (Slovakia), were selected, where almost all the agricultural soils were polluted by the metallic elements (Fe3+, Al3+, Mn2+, Cu2+, As3+). Agricultural soils toxicity was assessed with the toxicity bioassay -Phytotoxkit. Tests of limit concentrations of the elements (Fe3+, Al3+, Mn2+, Cu2+ and As3+) and Tests of soil concentration series (100-50-25-12.5%) - screening tests mustard Sinapis alba and Lepidium sativum were performed. The testing of the concentration range was performed in order to determine the values of 14d/EC50 and the possibility of comparing the ecotoxicity of metallic elements in agricultural soils (ISO 11269-2 Soil quality). Four concentrations were prepared in test plates: 12.5 - 25 - 50 - 100% soil samples. Concentration of metals in the soil samples ranged from 24400 to 39000 mg/kg for iron; 54000 to 85000 mg/kg for aluminum; 381 to 1035 mg/kg for manganese; 27 to 59 mg/kg for copper; and 7 to 36 mg/kg for arsenic. Based on the median concentration, the metals in the soils were arranged in the following decreasing order: Al3+ &gt; Fe3+ &gt; Mn2+ &gt; Cu2+ &gt; As3+. In the agricultural soils (4USS-PW) showed high contamination values for the iron with a median 35300 mg/kg, aluminum with a median 82500 mg/kg, manganese with a median 1027 mg/kg. The median level of arsenic in the soil (4USS-PW) was 34 mg/kg, this indicate higher concentration as the limit concentration is 25 mg/kg (Law No. 220/2004-2). Agricultural soils 1-3USS and 5USS showed less than 50% inhibition of the seed germination and root growth in the S.alba and L. sativum tests compared to the control, excepting of soil from 4USS plant west (values of the EC50 to 65%). Thus, the results of phytotoxicity tests were consistent with the chemical data. The rapid increase in urbanization, industrialization, human population, and traffic flow has resulted in the environment surrounding farmland ecosystems being critically contaminated by metallic elements.</p> Oľga Šestinová Lenka Findoráková Jozef Hančuľák Copyright (c) 2024 Oľga Šestinová,Lenka Findoráková,Jozef Hančuľák https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 473–481 473–481 10.29227/IM-2024-01-53 Kwaśna modyfikacja gruzińskiego heulandytu naturalnego https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/546 <p>Acid treatment is a powerful tool for improving the performance of natural zeolites, and the purpose of our work was to study chemical composition, structure and properties of acid-treated heulandite from the Tedzami-Dzegvi deposit. Samples of heulandite-containing tuff from the Rkoni plot with zeolite phase content up to 90%, consisting of heulandite and chabazite in a ratio of 8:1, and having chemical composition described by empirical formula |Na0.25K0.06Ca0.19Mg0.15)|[AlSi3.6O9.2].3H2O were treated with hydrochloric acid solutions with concentration up to 2.0 N. It was established that acid treatment leads to significant dealumination (the molar ratio of Si/Al increases from 3.6 to 9.5) and decationization (the total charge per aluminium atom decreases from 1 to 0.68), sodium and magnesium are mainly leached, calcium and potassium does not take part in the decationization process. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns show that hydrochloric acid solutions with a concentration up to 2.0 N do not lead to amorphization of the zeolite microporous crystal structure, but can gradually dissolve it. The adsorption of water vapor indicates the availability of micropores for the entry of small polar molecules, benzene adsorption shows a slight increase of hydrophobicity of the surface as a result of acid treatment. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms show acid-mediated sharp increase of adsorption in micropores and of the surface area, as well as changes in the mesoporous system, leading to the prevalence of pores with a diameter of 3 – 10 nm. The concentration of dilute solutions of hydrochloric acid is determined, which provides availability of micropores for large ions and nonpolar molecules, but at which dealumination is insignificant and ion-exchange capacity remains at a sufficient level. Materials obtained by acid treatment of heulandite can be used as adsorbents, ion exchangers, and carriers of biologically active substances and metal ions.</p> Vladimer Tsitsishvili Ketevan Ebralidze Nanuli Dolaberidze Nato Mirdzveli Manana Nijaradze Zurab Amiridze Bela Khutsishvili Copyright (c) 2024 Vladimer Tsitsishvili,Ketevan Ebralidze,Nanuli Dolaberidze,Nato Mirdzveli,Manana Nijaradze,Zurab Amiridze,Bela Khutsishvili https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 483–491 483–491 10.29227/IM-2024-01-54 Właściwości i zastosowanie gruzińskiego naturalnego filipsytu https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/547 <p>Oceanic and terrestrial sedimentary phillipsites make up very large reserves, but the use of this natural zeolite is not so wide comparing to clinoptilolite, and purpose of our study was to characterize the phillipsites of the Georgian deposits and highlight their possible application. It is shown that natural phillipsite can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of phase-pure zeolite NaX with Si/Al~1.5-1.7 in the form of octahedral crystallites with uniform micrometric (2-7 μm) dimensions, characterized by high specific surface area (590-770 m2/g) and volume of pores (0.58 cm3/g) including uniform zeolitic micropores and channels with an average diameter of 55 nm, which opens up the prospect of its use in catalysis. It has been established that natural phillipsite is a suitable carrier of bioactive metals: silver-, copper-, and zinc-containing micro-mesoporous materials have been prepared using ion-exchange reactions between zeolite and a salt of a transition metal; the products contain up to 235 mg/g of silver, 85 mg/g of copper, and 87 mg/g of zinc, and in the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion test show strong bacteriostatic activity against such microorganisms as gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, fungal pathogenic yeast Candida albicans and a fungus Aspergilus niger. The use of bactericidal materials obtained on the basis of natural phillipsite is possible both for water purification and disinfection, and as fillers in the production of polymeric materials, paper and cardboard.</p> Vladimer Tsitsishvili Nanuli Dolaberidze Nato Mirdzveli Manana Nijaradze Zurab Amiridze Bela Khutsishvili Copyright (c) 2024 Vladimer Tsitsishvili,Nanuli Dolaberidze,Nato Mirdzveli,Manana Nijaradze,Zurab Amiridze,Bela Khutsishvili https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 493–501 493–501 10.29227/IM-2024-01-55 Stabilność struktury gruzińskiego naturalnego heulandytu https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/548 <p>Zeolites have a unique set of molecular-sieve, sorption, ion exchange and catalytic properties due to their framework microporous structure, and structural stability is an important characteristic and often a decisive factor in the application and performance of natural zeolites. The aim of our work was to study the processes occurring under the influence of heat, which determine the thermal stability of the zeolite-containing tuff of the Tedzami-Dzegvi deposit, with zeolite phase content up to 90%, consisting of heulandite and chabazite in a ratio of 8:1, and chemical composition |Na0.25K0.06Ca0.19Mg0.15|[AlSi3.6O9.2].3H2O. It was found that as a result of exposure to heat, a slight dealumination of the surface of the calcined (400-500 °C) samples occurs, as well as dehydration and amorphization of the crystal structure are observed. Sample dehydration occurs in several stages: (i) most of the water (≈60% of the total water content) is continuously lost at temperatures below ≈250 °C, (ii) the part of the remainder (≈24%) is slowly dehydrated up to 650 °C, (iii) complete dehydration of the sample is achieved at ≈800 oC. Amorphization of the heulandite phase begins at temperatures above 200 °C, the transition to the metastable heulandite B phase at ≈340 oC is not fixed, but at high temperatures wairakite or another mineral of the 9.GB.05 group and quartz are formed; the chabazite phase is stable up to ≈1000 oC, and at temperatures above 1100 oC, leucite (K,Na)AlSi2O6 and cristobalite SiO2 are formed. The adsorption of water vapor and benzene on heat-treated samples decreases monotonically with an increase in the calcination temperature, following amorphization. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms show slight decrease of the absorbent surface area with an increase in the calcination temperature and nonmonotonic changes in average mesopore diameters. It is also shown that heat treatment improves the acid resistance of heulandite by reducing dealumination after sample treatment with hydrochloric acid.</p> Vladimer Tsitsishvili Nanuli Dolaberidze Nato Mirdzveli Manana Nijaradze Zurab Amiridze Zurab Amiridze Bela Khutsishvili Copyright (c) 2024 Vladimer Tsitsishvili,Nanuli Dolaberidze,Nato Mirdzveli,Manana Nijaradze,Zurab Amiridze,Zurab Amiridze,Bela Khutsishvili https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 503–510 503–510 10.29227/IM-2024-01-56 Porównanie komercyjnego i darmowego oprogramowania do przetwarzania chmur punktów https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/549 <p>Terrestrial laser scanning technology is becoming increasingly common for automated spatial data acquisition and digitization in the fields of surveying, civil engineering and architecture. The data from measurements made with terrestrial laser scanners are a huge array of points in space, called a point cloud, which describes the captured surface of the object under study. The point cloud processing is performed in specialized software products for handling measurements from laser scanners, which provide different possibilities for manipulating the point cloud and forming different results. The software available on the market differs according to its data processing capabilities and functionalities, application areas, methods used, manufacturer and cost. To be able to perform spatial data processing and analysis correctly and with high quality, it is important to understand the available functionalities of the different software products and their advantages and disadvantages compared to others. A comparison is made for three software packages for point cloud processing - Autodesk ReCap Pro, CloudCompare and Trimble RealWorks. The different functionalities available in the products are described and presented on small building measurements along with their performance accuracy and efficiency. The strengths and weaknesses of the different software products are identified through the comparison performed. The first section describes the basic principles of the terrestrial laser scanning method. In section two, the different point cloud processing software products on the market are presented, together with a description of the different file formats for data exchange and a theoretical section on point cloud registration, filtering, and modelling. The third section contains a presentation of the main functions and processing capabilities in Autodesk ReCap Pro, CloudCompare and Trimble RealWorks software. The fourth section describes the data used for the study, the measurements performed, their processing and results in the three software, together with an assessment of accuracy by control measurements. Section five contains conclusions and implications.</p> Gergana Antova Ivan Peev Copyright (c) 2024 Gergana Antova,Ivan Peev https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 511–519 511–519 10.29227/IM-2024-01-57 Przewidywanie atlantyckiej południkowej cyrkulacji z wykorzystaniem nieliniowych metod identyfikacji systemu i modelu NARMAX https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/550 <p>The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) plays an important role in the coupled ocean-climate system and in global climate change. The analysis of its own behaviour and the understanding its links to other climate dynamics is of paramount importance today as we encounter an increasing pressure to adapt to climate change. Due to the enormous complexity, it is almost impossible to establish accurate models, purely based on first-principle modelling approaches, that can perfectly represent the relationships between the AMOC and other dynamic climate parameters. Data-based or data-driven modelling methods, can therefore provide an attractive alternative solution. Systematic regular and continuous measurement of the AMOC time series began in April 2004. The main objective of the paper is to use the monthly data of the AMOC measured during April 2004-Febuary 2017, together with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, and density anomalies of the Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea and Norwegian Sea, measured during the same period, to investigate and understand the quantitative relationship between the AMOC and four drivers (NAO and the three density anomaly variables). In doing so, nonlinear system identification methods and the Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Average with Exogenous input (NARMAX) method are employed to develop a quantitative model that relates the AMOC to the four drivers. Experimental results show that the derived nonlinear model skillfully captures and represents the dynamics of the AMOC based on the other four variables. One of the findings from this study is that the use of autoregressive variables can help improve the prediction of the AMOC.</p> Hua-Liang Wei Grant R. Bigg Edward Hanna Copyright (c) 2024 Hua-Liang Wei,Grant R. Bigg,Edward Hanna https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 521–528 521–528 10.29227/IM-2024-01-58 Możliwy związek między eksploatacją lasów a emisją gazów cieplarnianych w Rumunii w latach 2008-2020 https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/551 <p>The increasingly obvious impact of climate change, in recent decades, has produced numerous negative effects and a series of measures have been imposed for reducing the emissions and for adaption to climate change. Forestry activities try to find a balance between adapting forest regeneration practices to the needs imposed by climate change. Two important economic activities: Forestry and logging and the second one the Wood processing and manufacturing play an important role on the quality of environmental factors in general and on greenhouse gas emissions in particular. CO2, CH4, N2O resulting from wood processing activities were used in this paper to evaluate the possible correlation between these emissions and the volume of extracted wood. The data were collected by the National Institute of Statistics during 2008-2020. The volume of extracted wood varies between 16,704 thousand cubic meters in 2008 and 19,652 thousand cubic meters in 2020, the analyzed period average being 18,218 thousand cubic meters. The CO2 emissions from Wood processing and manufacturing are significantly higher than the CO2 emissions from Forestry and logging, for example in 2008 the emissions from the first source were 230 thousand cubic meters compared to only 28 thousand cubic meters from the second source. The analysis of CH4 and N2O emissions shows that the two activities have relatively the same impact on air quality. Until now, there have been extensive studies on Romanian forestry activities from a qualitative and quantitative perspective, but it is important to observe the link between the volume of wood extracted and the emissions of greenhouse gases.</p> Carmelia Mariana Bălănică Dragomir Geanina Marcela Podaru Iulia Păduraru Graur Cristian Munteniță Copyright (c) 2024 Carmelia Mariana Bălănică Dragomir,Geanina Marcela Podaru,Iulia Păduraru Graur,Cristian Munteniță https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 529–535 529–535 10.29227/IM-2024-01-59 Alternatywne podejście do usuwania/odzyskiwania wybranych metali z wody kopalnianej wypływającej z zalanej kopalni syderytu Nižná Slaná https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/552 <p>The objective of this work was the application of innovative method for metals recovery from metalliferous mine water released from the flooded siderite ore deposit Nižná Slaná. Although the metals contained in mine drainage are considered environmental pollutants, they may also be recognised as valuable resources. Several techniques can be used to obtain them by precipitation. Conventional processes using alkaline reagents produce huge amounts of mixed sludge with appropriate storage and management requirement, void of possibility of individual metals subsequent processing. This study examined the feasibility of Fe and Mn selective retrieval from real mine water. After oxidation and partial precipitation of iron using hydrogen peroxide, precipitation by sodium hydroxide was applied to the residue iron removal from mine water. In the next step potassium permanganate was used to eliminate manganese by oxidative precipitation. ORP and pH values of processed mine water was recorded in the course of oxidation/precipitation processes. The morphology and elemental composition of obtained products were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The recovery efficiencies of Fe and Mn from mine water reached 99.87 % and 99.25%, respectively. Target metals were removed with high selectivity to levels that comply with environmental requirements.</p> Eva Mačingová Alena Luptakova Daniel Kupka Jaroslav Briančin Copyright (c) 2024 Eva Mačingová,Alena Luptakova,Daniel Kupka,Jaroslav Briančin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 537–543 537–543 10.29227/IM-2024-01-60 Podejście do jakości wody w zlewni osadzonej w krajobrazie rolno-leśnym nieznacznie zdegradowanym przez działalność rolniczo-hodowlaną https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/553 <p>The headwater streams constitute landscapes with their own entity and are strongly influenced by their environment. They have a large impact on health and integrity, both for water quality and wildlife downstream. Studies on water quality from atlantics agroforestry catchments are scarce. Knowledge about water quality in agroforestry headwater catchments is important for assessing downstream effects and as a baseline for net impacts of land-use change. We analyzed physicochemical water variables of a headwater stream framed in a rural-agroforestry catchment with very little agricultural area, low livestock density and very little human population in NW Spain. Stream water samples were collected at the catchment outlet at approximately biweekly intervals over three years. All water samples were analyzed for the following quality parameters: pH, water temperature (T), electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), major cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K), anions (Cl, SO4), nutrients [total dissolved carbon (TDC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrites nitrogen (NO2-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen, Kjeldahl nitrogen (KN), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved, particulate and total phosphorus (DP, PP, TP)], and suspended solids (SS). Discharge was also measured. The mean concentrations of major anions, cations and different forms of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were rather low compared to global “average” values. Overall, the mean values of the main physicochemical water quality indicators offers similar values to those found in other rural catchment in humid temperate climates with low agricultural activity and demography, although such concentrations could have been underestimated as they mostly correspond to regular sampling and therefore ignore the influence of rainfall-runoff events.</p> M. Luz Rodríguez-Blanco M. Teresa Taboada-Castro M. Mercedes Taboada-Castro Copyright (c) 2024 M. Luz Rodríguez-Blanco,M. Teresa Taboada-Castro,M. Mercedes Taboada-Castro https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 545–550 545–550 10.29227/IM-2024-01-61 Ocena stopnia wrażliwości warstw wodonośnych w przypadku przypadkowego zanieczyszczenia produktami ropopochodnymi https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/554 <p>Adequate management and protection of underground water resources is a desideratum of the current period of evolution as consumption, requirements and degree of impurity of fresh water is increasing with the development of human society. Also, the limited nature of continental fresh water resources requires additional protection measures for current resources, so the understanding and objective assessment of aquifers’ vulnerability degree in case of accidental pollution, represents the basis of environmental policies developed for the purpose of sustainable development of human communities. The study of the vulnerability degree of environmental factors and ecosystems that directly or indirectly interact with groundwater resources was carried out by analyzing groundwater quality indicators (BTEX) based on the vulnerability intervals established according to national legislation in force. The aquifers’ vulnerability degree the was evaluated for 3 possible scenarios of accidental pollution with petroleum products for a well field located in the south of Romania. The effects of BTEX compounds on ecosystems that directly or indirectly interact with groundwater were evaluated according to synergistic effects of xenobiotics, manifested at ecological niche level. The aim of the vulnerability degree study is for it to function as an analytical tool to identify areas vulnerable to pollution phenomenon and to develop the best measures to limit the phenomenon of contaminants’ transfer to other underground water bodies. Aquifers and ecosystems’ degree of vulnerability to external pressures is an integrated component of the environmental or ecotoxicological risk assessment process associated with the phenomenon of accidental pollution that may have effects on the quality of water stored in aquifers. Results of the conducted research are of interest for engineers and researchers who study the hydrological and hydrodynamic phenomena of underground water in order to develop and apply the best measures to reduce the impact caused by economic activities.</p> Alexandru Florin Simion Angelica Nicoleta Găman Marius Emilian Kovacs Sorin Victor Simion Copyright (c) 2024 Alexandru Florin Simion,Angelica Nicoleta Găman,Marius Emilian Kovacs,Sorin Victor Simion https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 551–557 551–557 10.29227/IM-2024-01-62 Ocena ryzyka przypadkowej inicjacji półfabrykatów zawierających artykuły pirotechniczne o przeznaczeniu technicznym w branży motoryzacyjnej https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/555 <p>The identification of the danger of accidental initiation, respectively the establishment of the causes and the possibilities that can generate the triggering of pyrotechnic devices with a technical destination in the automotive field containing pyrotechnic articles of the P1 category, is carried out for each piece of equipment depending on the phases of the technological process of their manufacture. The protection against the accidental initiation of pyrotechnic devices intended for equipping auto vehicles is of particular interest for occupational safety in the manufacturing process of these types of products, because their triggering can endanger the life and health of workers as a result of the uncontrollable effects of functioning, with the generation of thermal and dynamic effects, as well as the emission of toxic reaction products that can affect the human component and/or destroy the work space. The paper highlights the way to analyse the risk of accidental initiation of pyrotechnic devices actuator type from the P1 category, using the latest generation technical-scientific tools in order to computerize the effects following their untimely triggering and establish the safety distances in relation to the amplitude of the degree of damage to the human component, respectively the destruction caused to the work space. In the case of pyrotechnic articles from category P1 type pyrotechnic actuator, the main risks of their accidental initiation are determined by the following technical factors: the production of an electrical discharge greater than 25 KV, the generation of a current with an intensity greater than 0.4 A at the terminals pyrotechnic device, their exposure to a temperature higher than 165°C. The main effects generated after the untimely initiations of these products are determined by: flame, thermal radiation, dynamic pressure waves, projected fragments and hazardous releases of chemical combustion products. Depending on the results obtained following the estimation and assessment of the assessed risks, preventive and countermeasures of a technical and organizational nature are established, in order to secure the predicTab. operations of specific operations with these types of products.</p> Ilie Ciprian Jitea Bogdan Garaliu-Bușoi Cristian Rădeanu Robert Laszlo Gabriel Vasilescu Copyright (c) 2024 Ilie Ciprian Jitea,Bogdan Garaliu-Bușoi,Cristian Rădeanu,Robert Laszlo,Gabriel Vasilescu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 559–568 559–568 10.29227/IM-2024-01-63 Bakteryjna redukcja siarczanów jako odpowiednia metoda usuwania siarczanów z kwaśnych wód kopalnianych https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/556 <p>The aim of this work was to investigate of the sulfates removal from acid mine drainage (AMD) by biological method using sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). A sample of AMD out-flowing from the Pech shaft of the abandoned and flooded Smolník deposit in Slovak Republic was studied. The untreated AMD (with contents metals) and treated AMD i.e. after of the metals removing by the synthetic sorbent Slovakite were used. The base of the biological sulfates elimination was the sulfates bacterial reduction under influence of SRB genera Desulfovibrio. These bacteria realize the sulfates reduction to hydrogen sulfide at the simultaneously oxidation of energetic substrate. Standard selective nutrient medium DSM-63 and modified selective nutrient medium DSM-63 (without sulfates contents) with standard amount of sodium lactate (as energetic substrate) were used in the experiments with untreated AMD. Standard selective nutrient medium DSM-63 and modified selective nutrient medium DSM-63 with standard, double and triple amount of sodium lactate were used in the experiments with treated AMD. In the case of untreated AMD has been reached low removing of sulfates - 20% efficiency (standard medium) and 26% (modified medium). The formation of heterogeneous precipitates containing metals pointed to the need for treatment of AMD by the initial removal of metals by sorption on Slovakite sorbent and subsequent removal of sulfates by bacterial reduction. The results of experiments with AMD treated in this way showed 49%, 70% and 88% efficiency of sulfate removal when using sodium lactate in standard, double and triple amounts. The results of this work suggest that ratio of substrate quantity and sulfate concentration is one of the key parameter of sulfate reducing condition. However, the price of the energy substrate is also an important factor. Therefore, subsequent experiments will be focused on the use of the more affordable substrates (e.g. whey) or mixed bacterial culture of SRB, which will also be able to use the products of decomposition of basic energetic substrates.</p> Alena Luptakova Eva Macingova Jana Hroncova Magdalena Balintova Adriana Cikotova Miloslav Luptak Copyright (c) 2024 Alena Luptakova,Eva Macingova,Jana Hroncova,Magdalena Balintova,Adriana Cikotova,Miloslav Luptak https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 569–574 569–574 10.29227/IM-2024-01-64 Wpływ zmian klimatu na środowisko zabudowane https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/557 <p>We are currently in the period of an intensive climate change, resulting from changes in the heat balance of the earth’s surface and causing an increase in the temperature of the lower troposphere levels. According to the latest IPCC report of 2021, it is human activity that has indisputably caused the increase in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, responsible for this process. The consequences of climate change under Polish conditions, apart from a rise in temperature especially in the spring and winter months, are also changes in the amount and distribution of precipitation totals. A slight increase in precipitation totals is observed, however heavy rainfall is significantly more frequent, interspersed with periods of droughts and heatwaves. Ground frost-free periods are prolonged, and a negative trend in the duration and thickness of snow cover is recorded in most parts of the country. Although extreme phenomena occurring in Poland are permanently inscribed in its climatic conditions, the threat of strong winds has been increasing in recent years, and the intense precipitation that often accompanies them is the cause of peak discharges and flooding. Forecasts for progressive climate change are not optimistic, either on a global scale or for the country in question. The article examines the impact of climate change on the design, construction and maintenance of engineering structures globally and for Poland. Changes in design standards, selected examples of disasters and solutions to adapt and build resilience to climate change have been analysed. For most building disasters, climatic factors were the direct cause of the disaster, although in the course of the analysis it has usually turned out that the disasters exposed human errors in the design, construction and, to a lesser extent, the improper maintenance of engineering structures. However, there is an increasing number of new approaches to creating a climate change resilient built environment, including the latest one, which proposes to use the grey infrastructure of cities to build resilience to climate change.</p> Jolanta Dąbrowska Anna Rawska-Skotniczny Maciej Kaźmierowski Małgorzata Biniak-Pieróg Copyright (c) 2024 Jolanta Dąbrowska,Anna Rawska-Skotniczny,Maciej Kaźmierowski,Małgorzata Biniak-Pieróg https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 575–582 575–582 10.29227/IM-2024-01-65 Współczynnik erozji gleby przy użyciu wielospektralnych wskaźników roślinności: Przykład zlewni rzeki Sarayardere (wschodnie Rodopy, Bułgaria)Wpływ zmian klimatu na środowisko zbudowane https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/558 <p>Land cover/land use is one of the main factors influencing the development of soil erosion. It has been included in the calculation and modelling of erosion and sediment transport in many studies. In the current research NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) and NDRE (normalized difference red edge index) are used for quantifying the cover management factor (C-factor). They are calculated on the base of Sentinel 2 multispectral images. Taking into account the vegetation phenology two time points were analyzed: end of May - June – active vegetation and September (beginning of October) – late vegetation. The changes in the values of the indices were considered for 2018, 2021 and 2022. The study area is the watershed of the river Sarayardere, located in the southern part of Bulgaria. This is a hilly to low-mountain area, prone to erosion due to rare vegetation, high slope gradients and a relatively long dry period followed by intensive rainfall. The calculated values of the C-factor are indicators for higher susceptibility to erosion in September than it is in June. The spatial distribution of the C-factor shows different patterns. The results, received on the base of the image of September 2021, show increasing the areas with C-factor &lt; 0.1 and these ones &gt; 0.5, in comparison with the results of September 2018. C-factor values calculated on the image of October 2022 indicate the highest susceptibility to erosion. Using NDRE instead NDVI results in slightly higher values of the C-factor. The advantage of the NDRE index is that it provides information on the content of chlorophyll in the vegetation during the end of the vegetation period and allows a more accurate assessment of the state of the separate plants, regarding the determination of diseased or damaged plants. In addition to the vegetation indices, an expert evaluation of the state of vegetation was done. The results of the current study show that the watershed of the river Sarayardere is in a relatively good condition regarding the development of erosion processes. The attention should be directed to the possible increase of erosion on deforested slopes and the availability of loose materials, in case of intense rainfall.</p> Valentina Nikolova Miloslava Stefanova Violeta Dimitrova Copyright (c) 2024 Valentina Nikolova,Miloslava Stefanova,Violeta Dimitrova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 583–591 583–591 10.29227/IM-2024-01-66 Projektowanie zakładu uzdatniania wody przy wsparciu modeli laboratoryjnych https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/559 <p>The subject of the research focused on the possibilities of supporting the design of surface water treatment plants using laboratory models. Within the pilot study, the possibilities of using different water treatment processes in the treatment of water from the water reservoir Nové Mlýny in the Czech Republic were assessed. The planned treatment plant is to supply a future recreational site from a shallow reservoir with significant eutrophication and chemical industry in the drainage basin. Coagulation, sedimentation, dissolved air flotation, membrane filtration processes and adsorption on granular activated carbon were investigated. These processes were identified by the preliminary study as applicable to water treatment and it was necessary to determine which could be applied given the site conditions. Laboratory models for the individual processes were used during the laboratory testing. During the research, problems encountered were debugged and the models were modified and some extensions were added to the original models. The coagulation and sedimentation processes were investigated using conventional jar tests. The dissolved air flotation process was simulated using a modified jar test and a lab scale model. Different types and doses of coagulants, mixing parameters and residence times were investigated in the tests. Turbidity value was used as an optimization parameter due to its rapidity of determination and low cost. For some tests, potassium permanganate oxidizability (also known as the permanganate index) was also used as an evaluation parameter so that different evaluation parameters could be compared. In addition, for the dissolved air flotation process, the parameters of the produced sludge - its quantity, suspended solids content and chemical oxygen demand - were monitored. These parameters are crucial for discharge of waste water into the sewer and its costs. The adsorption tests on granular activated carbon were performed as batch tests. The evaluation parameter was the manganese index. Another possible variant of activated carbon tests is a continuous flow-through column. These columns also allow monitoring of the process of fouling and the evolution of the effluent over time. The pilot project then used the results of the laboratory tests to create a design for a treatment plant in the area of interest and selected parts of the project documentation. The pilot project demonstrated the usefulness of laboratory testing as a tool to support the design of drinking water treatment plants. At the same time, these tests allow for a faster and more certain identification of the appropriate water treatment technology and thus reduce the extent of semi-operational testing at the site, leading to a more efficient use of funds by investors.</p> Filip Mecir Tomas Kucera Kristina Zelinova Jakub Travnicek Copyright (c) 2024 Filip Mecir,Tomas Kucera,Kristina Zelinova,Jakub Travnicek https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 1 1 593–599 593–599 10.29227/IM-2024-01-67 Zarządzanie środowiskiem na Łotwie: Przegląd dobrego zarządzania i wdrażania https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/560 <p>Environmental governance implementation at all levels starting from EU up to local level need to have necessary capacity and whole set of governance instruments to ensure that the governance process reaches planned outcomes. The primary aim of the environmental governance assessment in Latvia is to review the implementation of environmental governance at the national level, but considering importance of municipal level as well. The initial part of this study was also part of the European Commission project, realized in the all EU Member States and then were studied several good governance characteristics as transparency, accountability, access to justice, participation, effectiveness and efficiency, and others. There were done all related document studies and additional selected interviews with key experts in the field and representing both governance levels, national and local. The continuation studies done kept similar approaches, however aiming at qualitative updating of environmental governance situation overview, according to the various substantial environmental and administrative-terririal and other changes which were taking place in the meantime in Latvia. Also there were additional studies performed, especially, stressing the importance of municipal environmental governance. Researchers used data and document studies, as well as consultations (express interviews) with related environmental experts/practitioners of different governance levels in the country. There are various environmental governance instruments at national level, having planned impact on local level governance, but local municipalities, as legal entities in the field of public law, first of all rely on regulatory enactments which define in detail the functions, rights and duties of local governments. The legislative framework is exhaustive and detailed, but it is fragmented in relation to the environment protection. Coordination mechanisms between local, regional, and national levels are complicated. The development of infrastructure at national level is mainly linked to existing standards, regulations and procedures for construction, exploitation, etc., as well as the distribution of available EU funds and monitoring and control of use. The financial-economic framework at national level defines the source of municipal finances – real estate tax, population income tax, natural resources tax, but there are yet limited financial mechanisms for local governments of municipalities to stimulate business development in their territory, promote sustainable forms of business, promote the use of renewable energy sources (e.g. wind parks). As regards the institutional and administrative framework and the framework for communication process and its complementary instruments, there are only separate restrictions imposed by regulatory enactments, leaving the local government level with a relatively large freedom of choice, but within their administrative capacities and financial resources available. Effective mechanisms to enable members of the public to make complaints about environmental problems are in place, and for those complaints to be properly addressed, are an important part of environmental compliance assurance. They also reinforce public confidence in environmental laws. Environmental governance in general in Latvia is well enough framed and developed in all governance levels – national, regional, local and grass-root level.</p> Janis Brizga Maris Ozolins Raimonds Ernsteins Copyright (c) 2024 Janis Brizga,Maris Ozolins,Raimonds Ernsteins https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 601–609 601–609 10.29227/IM-2024-01-68 Właściwości palne kompozytów epoksydowych wzmocnionych włóknem konopnym https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/561 <p>In this study, the behavior of hemp fiber/epoxy composites subjected to flammability properties. for the production of composite samples, hemp reinforcements were used: unidirectional two balanced laminates (00/900) different in thickness were studied: 2 plies, 4 plies. The composites were fabricated by hand lay-up process the flammability properties of composites are analyzed by using UL-94. The effects of two different fire retardant compounds (Magnesium hydroxide and Aluminum hydroxide) filling on the Underwriters Laboratories (UL)-94 horizontal and vertical tests were carried out for evaluating the effectiveness of these FR treatments. The effects of 2 - 4% Mg (OH)2 and Al (OH)3 loading on the composites' burning rate was studied. It was seen that the composite results of vertical burning tests classified these composites under No Classification. The rate of burning of the composites decreased with the inclusion of fire retardants and the rate of burning of 11,60 and 11,22 and 12,20, and 10,60 mm/min was found with 4% wt of Mg(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 in composites respectively.</p> Menderes Koyuncu Copyright (c) 2024 Menderes Koyuncu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 611–614 611–614 10.29227/IM-2024-01-69 Reakcje foraminiferałów na zmiany poziomu morza na granicy środkowego karbonu w środkowych Taurydach (Turcja) https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/562 <p>The response of benthic foraminiferal assemblages to relative sea-level changes during the mid-Carboniferous succession of the Yarıcak Formation in the Central Taurides is assessed with respect to sedimentary cyclicity and sequence stratigraphy by quantitative analysis. The data derived from the relative abundances of foraminifera have critical significance in the understanding of cyclic patterns and sea level changes in carbonate deposits. Calcareous foraminiferal groups including archaediscids, eostaffellids, irregularly coiled bilocular forms, unilocular forms, paleotextularids, biseriamminids, endothyrids, and pseudoendothyrids have been counted and analysed in this study. The mid-Carboniferous boundary succession predominantly covering uniform lithology of carbonates alternated with sandstone layers involves shallowing upward cycles used for the revealing of sea-level fluctuations. The relative abundances of these foraminiferal groups reveal a striking response to cyclicity with the reductions in the abundances towards the upper part of the cycles. Conversely, the abundances of pseudoendothyrids and endothyrids do not exhibit any considerable variations within the studied interval.</p> Ayşe Atakul-Özdemir Demir Altıner Sevinç Özkan-Altıner Copyright (c) 2024 Ayşe Atakul-Özdemir,Demir Altıner,Sevinç Özkan-Altıner https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 615–620 615–620 10.29227/IM-2024-01-70 Podejście oparte na GIS analizie do relacji między jednostkami gruntów a użytkowaniem gruntów w centralnym regionie Portugalii https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/563 <p>Land units refer to coherent spatial areas characterized by a degree of homogeneity concerning certain properties like geology, soils, and climate. The Land use mosaic corresponds to a circumstantial layer representing the landscape’s present state, depicting the present resource allocation factors. Nevertheless, the stable potential layer is related to the stable characteristics of each site and allows the identification of use constraints or potentials. In this study, we use a methodology based on the land unit concept to define a stable potential layer at a regional level. Therefore, land units were delimited for the Central region of Portugal, resulting from the combination of geomorphology, soil parent material, and bioclimatic influence. For each land unit representative sample areas were characterized in terms of their land use mosaic characteristics. For that purpose, selected landscape metrics were used to quantify the land use mosaic geometrical attributes: Shannon’s Diversity Index, Edge Density, Mean Patch Size, and Number of Patches. The existing land use types were also quantified. Finally, a cluster analysis was performed to define groups of samples representing the land units with similar land-use mosaic types. The landscape metrics that best explain the influence of the permanent structure of the territory on the circumstantial structure of use are Shannon's Diversity Index, Edge Density, and Number of Patches. The highest diversity land cover patterns are located in formations with a lithology rich to very rich in silica under Mesomediterranean dry to subhumid climate. The validation of the previously defined land units confirmed the reliability of the proposed methodology, with most of the land units strongly influencing the land use mosaic. The delimitation and characterization of homogeneous land units are useful for the definition of soil suitability and for the choice of the most appropriate uses and activities by the stakeholders.</p> Luís Quinta-Nova Copyright (c) 2024 Luís Quinta-Nova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 621–628 621–628 10.29227/IM-2024-01-71 Modelowanie hydrologiczne jako wsparcie dla projektowania i utrzymania infrastruktury https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/564 <p>One of the many concerns related to climate change is its impact on infrastructure, for example in the case of structures such as bridges or culverts which are more frequently exposed to conditions like significant differences in water table levels or floods. Varying weather conditions can also cause deterioration of properties of the materials which they are made of, which coupled with higher loads (water, wind or temperature variation, depending on the structure) decreases their durability and hinders their operation. Existing infrastructure facilities were designed with the use of historical data, and those design assumptions can be out of date at the moment, moreover their validity decreases with further climate changes. In order to support the design of new infrastructure facilities and the maintenance of already existing ones, climate change should be taken into account. One of the means that can be used to assess the impact of climate change on bridges and other river infrastructure is hydrological modelling. In this paper, the authors present a hydrological model of the flow in the Ślęza River, a 78.6 km long, left- bank tributary of the Odra River, as well as in its tributaries, with a particular focus on the points where bridges are located. The model was performed with QSWAT software, taking into account two scenarios of climate change: SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 (obtained with the use of NorESM2-LM model) and calibrated with the use of historical meteorological data. The results of the model include daily flows for years 2023-2050, which allows to compare characteristic (statistical) flows and observe trends; also a change in the dynamics of the river caused by thaws can also be observed. A greater number of extreme events can be seen in the results for the SSP2-4.5 scenario, the values of flood flows are also higher for this scenario, whereas the average flows are higher for the SSP5-8.5 scenario, which is due to higher rainfall in this scenario – although the threat of short-term extreme events is lower, but nevertheless, due to increased flows, scouring development can occur in this scenario, which when left uncontrolled can pose great risks to bridges. The obtained results would be helpful for engineers who plan the maintenance of infrastructure facilities, as this analysis would provide additional data in order to choose optimal solutions for the costs of exploitation and for the environment.</p> Anna Uciechowska-Grakowicz Grzegorz Chrobak Jolanta Dąbrowska Copyright (c) 2024 Anna Uciechowska-Grakowicz,Grzegorz Chrobak,Jolanta Dąbrowska https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 629–636 629–636 10.29227/IM-2024-01-72 Wpływ działalności antropogenicznej w dorzeczu górnego Dunaju na reżim temperatury wody Dunaju w Bratysławie https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/565 <p>The man activity in the basin affects the water temperature in the increasingly higher levels (construction of water reservoirs, construction of thermal and nuclear power plants or drainage of waste water to streams). In this paper, we focused our attention on the evaluation of the impact of anthropogenic activity to increase the thermal load of the Danube River for the period 1926–2020 at the Bratislava (Slovakia) station. In the first part, the long-term trends of a series of monthly and annual water temperatures in the Danube (period 1931–2020) are identified. In the second part, the dependence of the range of daily water temperature values is analysed at the temperature of the atmosphere in Vienna. The impact of an increase in the temperature of the Danube water due to human activity was tried to identify for lower, average, and higher flows (for Danube discharge at Bratislava water gauge 1500 m3s-1, 2000 m3s-1, and 3000 m3s-1) by comparing two periods: 1932–1961, and 1991–2020. As the effect of water heating in the river stream is most noticeable during low flow (dry) periods and high air temperatures, only daily water and air temperature data from the warm months between May and September were used in the calculations. At monthly flow rates of 1500 m3s-1, the water temperature was, on average, 0.5°C higher during the period of 1991–2020 than it was during the period of 1932–1960. This growth could be attributed to human activities in the Danube basin above Bratislava (warming of water in the built tanks, the wastewater flow to the Danube flow, etc.)</p> Pavla Pekárová Pavol Miklánek Ján Pekár Copyright (c) 2024 Pavla Pekárová,Pavol Miklánek,Ján Pekár https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 637–644 637–644 10.29227/IM-2024-01-73 Poprawa zdolności sorpcyjnej i zastosowania biosorbentu poprzez immobilizację https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/566 <p>The water contamination by toxic metal ions is a worldwide environmental problem. High concentrations are hazardous for all living organisms, causing many disorders and diseases and ecological damages to the surroundings. Biosorption is an innovative technology that employs inactive and dead biomass (bacteria, fungi, algae, biowaste) for the recovery of metals from aqueous solutions. Sulphate-reducing bacteria utilization is one of the options how to prepare applicable sorbent which removes metal ions from water. This material is created as a consequence of bacteria metabolism in anaerobic environment. The use of freely suspended biomass is often impractical and has some disadvantages. In contrast to this, application of immobilized biomass shows more benefits including increased mechanical strength, resistance to chemical environment, easy separation of cells and effluents, high biomass performance and repeated use in many adsorption/desorption cycles. Cell entrapment is the most widely used method for immobilization. In this technique, the cells are enclosed in a polymeric matrix which is porous enough to allow diffusion of substrate to the cells. The aim of this work was to examine and compare the sorption ability of biogenic iron sulphides created by sulphate-reducing bacteria in “free” and “entrapped” form. Precipitates were synthesized in reagent bottles with bacteria culture and growth media Postgate C, at 30 °C during 60 days, subsequently dried and analysed. Prepared samples were immobilized using sodium alginate. Sorption of cadmium from model solutions was realized in 100 ml Erlenmeyer flasks, with sorbent dose 1 g/l, during 24 hours. During experiments, the samples showed a satisfying stability and maximum adsorption capacity achieved 38 mg/g. The results refer to good sorption properties of immobilized samples and their potential for further practical use.</p> Jana Hroncova Alena Luptakova Jaroslav Briančin Daniel Kupka Copyright (c) 2024 Jana Hroncova,Alena Luptakova,Jaroslav Briančin,Daniel Kupka https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 645–651 645–651 10.29227/IM-2024-01-74 Poziomy zewnętrznych dawek promieniowania gamma w wybranych miejscach w Rumunii, Mołdawii i Grecji https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/567 <p>The study presents a synthesis of results obtained in the frame of international cross-border projects, implemented in partnership, for gamma radiation dose rates measured in outdoor environments in various sites in Romania, Moldova, Greece, including urban, rural, touristic and protection areas. The selected sites (n=41) are found in the Eastern Carpathians Mountains, Lower Danube basin, Danube Delta, Lower Prut River Reserve, Dniester River, as well as Black Sea and Northern Aegean Sea basins. The data recorded for targeted spots using portable dosimeters highlight an hourly and daily variation of the outdoor gamma dose rate and the specificity of the geological background and terrain utilization. The mean values of outdoor gamma radiation dose rate, calculated for 50 measurements per each site, are ranging between 71 nGy/h (Vama Veche, Constanta County, Black Sea coast, Romania) and 394 nGy/h (Nea Peramos, Ammolofoi beach, Northern Aegean Sea, Greece), with a minimum of 41 nGy/h in Vama Veche and a maximum of 489 nGy/h in Ammolofoi beach. A comparison is made with legislated values and other world places. The measurements performed at water surface during boat expeditions (n=21) on Danube River and Danube Delta lakes and channels point out lower values of dose rate, due to the weak influence of gamma rays’ emission from bottom sediments. The data of the dose rate temporal variations will be used for the target regions as a base in further investigations and preparation of maps of gamma dose rates (terrestrial and cosmic), and calculation of the health risk for inhabitants and tourists.</p> Antoaneta Ene Elena Zubcov Steluța Gosav Copyright (c) 2024 Antoaneta Ene,Elena Zubcov,Steluța Gosav https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 653–660 653–660 10.29227/IM-2024-01-75 Zadanie lokalizacji w sieciach kanalizacyjnych https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/568 <p>Paper deals with the inverse / localisation task in sewer networks. An inverse problem is defined as the process of determining the causal factors from a set of observations. Applying this principle to the water management sector, it is often a matter of determining the location of the source of pollution based on monitored data on the concentration of pollution over time. From a mathematical point of view, to decrease the uncertainty of the inverse task solution, it is necessary to know the location of the source or the concentrations time course of the source (intensity function). In practice, we usually do not know any of these quantities, however, in the case of sewer networks we can accept some assumptions, which allow us to solve this inverse problem. Paper analyses specific conditions applied in the environment of sewer networks and describes proposed method for solving the source localisation task in the sewer network environment. The solution is based on numerical modelling of the pollution spreading in sewer system, accepting some process simplifications as well as assuming some source parameters. Typically, the solution of inverse task requires large and time consuming numerical simulations. This can be disadvantageous after recording the pollution event - a long calculation time reduces the efficiency and operability for the following pollution source reconnaissance. Therefore, our proposed method performs the necessary simulations in advance and the pollution source localisation after recording the pollution event is very fast, using a simple search and comparison in the simulation results database. The proposed method was tested on real sewer system and there were achieving promising results.</p> Marek Sokáč Yvetta Velísková Copyright (c) 2024 Marek Sokáč,Yvetta Velísková https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 661–668 661–668 10.29227/IM-2024-01-76 Pozyskiwanie złota ze słowackiego koncentratu przy użyciu innowacyjnej metody https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/569 <p>The complicated processing of concentrates with low gold content and the long-time use of non-ecological methods was the motion for finding a more efficient process for this noble metal obtaining. From this point of view, this research was focused on obtaining of nano gold from the concentrate White Hill (Detva, Slovakia) using mechanical activation and mechano-biological activation in a molecular hydrogen solution. Gold in this complex concentrate occurs physically enclosed in the intercrystalline space of minerals and is also isomorphic and fills defects in their structure. The exclusion of gold from such complex mineral matrixes of the concentrate can be achieved using a mechano-biological process. This innovative method for obtaining of nano gold with the application of a molecular hydrogen solution is an advantageous alternative to the non-environmental reagents used. Compared to the most used worldwide toxic cyanide reagent, a solution with molecular hydrogen represents a low-cost and above all completely harmless reagent with very good kinetics. Mechanical processes use high-energy milling, which has an effect on the more intensive formation of surface and bulk defects in solid substances. The main advantage of mechanical processes is a smaller number of technological operations, a shorter time required to obtain the desired product at favorable environmental temperatures, and also the formation of nanostructures. The use of a biological process with the application of limnetic algae showed that algae with siliceous structures make it possible to obtain gold from the White Hill concentrate with nanoscale size. Limnetic algae (diatoms, golden algae) are part of aquatic ecosystems and create the largest matter of biomass from all plants on the Earth. The mechano-biological process is a method that enabled to obtain of gold nanoparticles with an average size of 100 nm from the Slovak gold-bearing concentrate from the White Hill deposit (BV-1). Mechanical activation of this concentrate and siliceous shells of the specified limnetic algae (Dinobryon, Surirella) in a molecular hydrogen solution caused changes in the physical-chemical properties of gold minerals as well as in the constituents of algae minerals. These structural changes had a decisive influence on the exclusion of gold nanoparticles into the molecular hydrogen solution under the defined reaction conditions. The gold nanoparticles were subsequently fixed in the cellular matrix of mechanically activated algae shells. The explanation of this phenomenon was the action of biomolecules, which the algae cells secreted in the course of reactions with metal ions present in the molecular hydrogen solution. Gold nanoparticles from the investigated concentrate were obtained by a new mechano-biological procedure already for four hours. In the case of mechanical activation of the concentrate, but without activation of the used algae, gold nanoparticles were excluded after sixteen hours. It follows from this knowledge that the application of an absolutely ecologically harmless aqueous solution enriched by molecular hydrogen and the use of limnetic algae confirmed the suitability of the innovative method for obtaining of nano gold from the concentrate. From the achieved research results significantly more effective kinetics is evident in the case of activated algae. Nanoparticles of gold obtained by the mentioned procedure can have important practical utilization, such as accelerating of the decomposition of dangerous substances or neutralizing pollutants in contaminated water, soil, and air. Simultaneously, obtaining of gold nanoparticles would also be beneficial for removing algae from the aquatic environment, where they are very dangerous for all living organisms.</p> Jana Ficeriová Erika Dutková Copyright (c) 2024 Jana Ficeriová,Erika Dutková https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 669–673 669–673 10.29227/IM-2024-01-77 Technologia reaktywnego rozpylania magnetronowego do otrzymywania azotków III https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/570 <p>In the present work is studied synthesis of galium nitride (GaN) and aluminum nitride (AlN) by DC Reactive Magnetron Sputtering technology. As a sputtering target was used high purity (99.9999%) Gallium and Aluminum materials and as a reagent gas was used high purity (99.9999%) Nitrogen. Magnetron sputtering system with strong magnets (1450 mT) allows to make plasma at a low preasure 3 × 10-2 Pa and deposition process was carried out at high vacuum conditions. Deposited layers of GaN and AlN on the sappire substrate was analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and revealed the crystalline nature highly oriented with the (0002) for both nitrides. For chemical composition was measured X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and it was found out the ratios of Ga:N and Al:N to be 1.07 and 1.04 respectively. For surface analysis was made Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Optic transmission spectra showed band gaps to be 3.43 eV and 6.13 eV for GaN and AlN respectively.</p> Zurab Kushitashvili Amiran Bibilashvili Nugzar Dolidze Givi Skhiladze Revaz Guliaevi Copyright (c) 2024 Zurab Kushitashvili,Amiran Bibilashvili,Nugzar Dolidze,Givi Skhiladze,Revaz Guliaevi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 675–680 675–680 10.29227/IM-2024-01-78 Niedawne tsunami na świecie (2020-2023) - porównania między modelowaniem a pomiarami https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/571 <p>Few high magnitude earthquakes were generated worldwide in the last three and a half years, some of which triggered tsunami waves. We took into account all the events during the interval January 2020 - June 2023. There was a total of 15 earthquakes (5 in 2020, 5 in 2021, 2 in 2022, 2 in 2023) which lead to moderate and/or small tsunami waves (above 0.1 m), having magnitudes higher than 7, but also one earthquake with magnitude below 7 (6.8) which lead to very small tsunami waves generation. Not all the high magnitude earthquakes resulted in tsunami waves, depending on the depth, focal mechanism and / or other parameters (distance to shore, local conditions, etc.). From tsunami measurements point of view, we considered the most relevant ones and studied only the events that lead to measured waves higher than 0.5 m. The most significant ones are 5 events: 23rd of June 2020 (15:29 UTC), Near Coast of Oaxaca Mexico, M7.4 (maximum waves 0.68 m); 19th of October 2020 (20:55 UTC) South of Alaska M7.4 (maximum waves 0.76 m); 10th of February 2021 (13:20 UTC) Southeast of Loyalty Island, M7.7 (maximum waves 0.78 m); 4th of March 2021 (19:28 UTC) Kermadec Island region, M8.1 (maximum waves 0.56 m) and 19th of September 2022 (18:05 UTC), Coast of Michoacan Mexico M7.6 (maximum waves 0.79 m). We compared, in this paper, the values of sea level measurements with the results of the tsunami simulations, using the parameters of each earthquake (latitude, longitude, magnitude, depth, focal mechanism). The modeling simulations were accomplished using TRIDEC Cloud software, provided by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), Potsdam, Germany. When comparing the values between the two types of data (measured vs. computed), the results show that some simulations overestimate the measured values, others underestimate it. More studies are necessary for a better numerical assessment of sea level, in order to be more precise and closer to the real measurements. Future work might include using two or three different modeling software, for the same earthquake parameters, and comparing the results.</p> Raluca Partheniu Alexandru Tiganescu Anica Otilia Placinta Copyright (c) 2024 Raluca Partheniu,Alexandru Tiganescu,Anica Otilia Placinta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 681–689 681–689 10.29227/IM-2024-01-79 Związek między wzorem krajobrazu a zakłóceniami powodowanymi przez człowieka w latach 1990-2018 w Portugalii kontynentalnej https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/572 <p>The land use/land cover pattern of landscapes as the main element of the landscape structure has an important role in landscape management, nature conservation, and preservation, considering its ability to provide valuable information about the spatial distribution and changes in land cover that occur on the Earth's surface. On the other hand, human activities have caused significant impacts on ecosystems, resulting in a loss of biodiversity, increased risks of erosion and soil degradation, and wildfires. In the last few decades, the growing trend of occurrence of negative effects on land use/land cover has not contributed to the achievement of sustainable development goals (SDGs), considering that the relationship between humankind and the environment is an extremely fragile equilibrium. In recent decades, large-scale land use and land cover (LULC) patterns have shown stability, but there have been significant dynamics observed specifically in forest areas and agricultural land. Among these changes, the conversion of maritime pine to eucalyptus stands out as the most relevant transition in terms of forest and agroforestry use classes. This conversion is a result of economic incentives available, which have contributed to the gain in forested areas. This study intends to verify how the alteration of the landscape configuration, represented by different metrics of configuration and diversity, is related to the intensity of human disturbance. The objectives of the study are: (1) to quantify the change in land use/land cover (LULC) patterns and the degree of human disturbance in Mainland Portugal between 1990 and 2018, and (2) to study the relationship between LULC configuration and the impact resulting from human disturbance under different levels of intensity, to understand how changing trends in landscape pattern can serve as indicators to estimate landscape changes resulting from human actions. The Hemeroby index (HI) was calculated to quantify the impacts on ecosystems resulting from disturbance caused by human actions. Based on the Hemeroby index value analysis for the period between 1990 and 2018, the level of naturalness increased in 58% of the country, mainly in the south and east of Portugal. The landscape pattern was quantified using a set of metrics, namely Mean Patch Size (MPS), Mean Shape Index (MSI), Total Edge (TE), Mean Patch Fractal Dimension (MPFD), and Mean Perimeter-Area Ratio (MPAR). To identify the existing statistical correlations between the geometric parameters of the landscape and the HIs values, the Spearman method was used. At the landscape level, the metrics TE and MSI have a strong negative correlation with HI. This suggests that landscapes with greater structural complexity are good indicators of low levels of hemeroby. At the class level, edge density (ED) and mean patch size (MPS) showed a significant correlation with the Hemeroby index for seminatural areas (all metrics), artificial surfaces and forests (TE, MSI, and MPS), agricultural areas (TE, MPS, and MPFD), and Bare Ground (TE, MSI, and MPFD).</p> Luís Quinta-Nova Copyright (c) 2024 Luís Quinta-Nova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 691–700 691–700 10.29227/IM-2024-01-80 Sezonowa i przestrzenna zmienność jakości wody w systemie jezior Lumina-Rosu w delcie Dunaju w Rumunii https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/573 <p>The main aim of the present scientific paper is to assess water quality of the surface water of various lakes located in the Lumina-Rosu interdistributary depression, Danube Delta, Romania. As specific objectives, the paper considered to spot the main potential sources of contamination and their environmental impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Equally, the purpose of the article is to emphasize the importance of monitoring the water quality of the Danube Delta, for preserving these unique natural water resources and their ecosystem services (fresh water, biodiversity, flood control, recreation, nutrient cycling, fishing and other traditional activities, ecotourism). Surface water samples collected from several control sections situated on the main tributaries and canals, as well as from lakes were investigated physically (To - C, EC - μS/cm, TDS - mg/L, turbidity - NTU units, TSS - mg/L) and chemically (pH - units, DO - mg/L, N-NO2- - mg/L, N-NO3- - mg/L, P-PO43-- mg/L, Chla - mg/L, SiO2 - mg/L, TOC - mg/L, SO42- - mg/L, S2- - mg/L, H2S - mg/L and synthetic detergents - mg/L). Generally, the hydro-physical-chemical characteristics and water quality assessment of the surface waters of the lakes manifest the combined effect of both processes occurred in the catchment (weathering, sediment supply and transport), as well as the in situ lake processes (photosynthesis, sediment mixing, biogeochemical cycling, evaporation, eutrophication, productivity changes). Overall, the physical and chemical characteristics of the sampling sites investigated at high waters of the Danube are quite similar to those measured at low waters. The differences that mainly occurred within the lakes are more related to the limnological variables and the local environmental conditions. Anyway, a significant seasonal variation was noticed in the lakes, during the dry period, when different physical and chemical characteristics appeared to be influenced by high air temperature, lack of precipitation, low water level regime, low dissolved oxygen level regime, all related to climate change effects etc. Moreover, the anthropogenic factor that left its mark on some physical-chemical characteristics of water should not be omitted either. However, the results obtained within this study did not show such alarming values as might have dangerous effects on the investigated aquatic environments. The water quality information within this case study may be used for improving the understanding of the water quality issues and to better coordinate and plan for future monitoring activities in and around the Danube Delta environment. The results will contribute to updating the existing database with relevant information for a sustainable future of the Danube Delta and in similar areas that are subjected to such environmental challenges.</p> Irina Catianis Adriana Maria Constantinescu Dumitru Grosu Naliana Lupascu Gabriel Iordache Florin Dutu Copyright (c) 2024 Irina Catianis,Adriana Maria Constantinescu,Dumitru Grosu,Naliana Lupascu,Gabriel Iordache,Florin Dutu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 701–710 701–710 10.29227/IM-2024-01-81 Wpływ zastosowania uzdatniaczów gleby na temperaturę i wilgotność środowiska glebowego https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/574 <p>In cities, environmental and social impacts are increased every year due to high temperatures due to the heat island of the city. An effective struggle against the heat island of the city is the green infrastructure, where woody plants such as trees and shrubs play an irreplaceable role. Wood in the city is affected by a number of stress factors, especially high temperatures and lack of precipitation. In order for them to perform all their important functions and help reduce the negative impacts of the city's heat island, all requirements for their successful development and growth must be fulfilled. Soil conditions are an important factor affecting the condition of trees. Unsuitable soil conditions which include lack of water, compacted soil, result in insufficient development of the root system which directly affects the quality of the above-ground part of the plants. A possible treatment to improve the soil environment in the root zone of trees is the use of soil conditioners applied in the form of soil injection. The paper deals with the effect of soil conditioners (Hydrogel®, mycorrhizal mix Endomyk PROF + Trichoderma, and their combination) in the form of injection on the temperature and humidity conditions of the soil environment in a young plants of trees (species) Acer campestre L. in the city of Znojmo (South Moravia region). Plants without application of any preparation served as a Control variant. Before the actual application of conditioners MINILOG data loggers with temperature sensors and VIRRIB moisture sensors were placed in the soil which recorded changes in soil temperature and volumetric soil moisture in six-hour intervals every day in the period from February 2021 till December 2022. These changes were recorded in two profiles 0.1 - 0.4 and 0.4 - 0.7 meters. From the recorded results, it can be said that the application of soil conditioners had a significant effect on the temperature and humidity conditions of the soil environment. The variant with the soil conditioner Hydrogel® and the variant with the soil conditioner Hydrogel® in combination with the mycorrhizal mix in most cases show higher values of soil moisture and temperature compared to the Control variant. This trend is most evident in the soil profile of 0.4 - 0.7 m in the growing season.</p> Jindřiška Jeřábková Petr Salaš Jana Burgová Copyright (c) 2024 Jindřiška Jeřábková,Petr Salaš,Jana Burgová https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 711–718 711–718 10.29227/IM-2024-01-82 Termografia rozległego zielonego dachu przedszkola w Brno-Komín https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/575 <p>The article deals with the behavior of an extensive green roof in winter. The behavior of the green roof of the Kindergarten Brno – Komín is described in the case study. The condition of the roof was determined using thermovisual technology. An extensive green roof shows significant temperature differences in winter compared to roofs without vegetation. The vegetation layer on roofs partially acts as an insulating layer. From this structure, the ventilation shafts and sanitary equipment emerge thermally. As part of thermography, the influence of the revision segment on heat conduction was determined. The overall thermal technical condition was evaluated using a thermal camera.</p> Martin Mohapl Jan Jílek Copyright (c) 2024 Martin Mohapl,Jan Jílek https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 719–724 719–724 10.29227/IM-2024-01-83 Oczyszczanie i waloryzacja ścieków z wytłoczyn z oliwek https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/576 <p>Wastewater generated during the production of pomace olive oil is complex and highly variable due to different cultivation and processing characteristics. It has a high toxic organic load, low pH, and high chemical and biological demands. To reduce the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenolic compounds (TPh) in pomace olive oil wastewater, several treatment processes have been studied. These include: (i) coagulation/flocculation, (ii) electrocoagulation, (iii) peroxy-electrocoagulation, (iv) electrochemical peroxidation, (v) Fenton, (vi) electro-Fenton, (vii) photo-Fenton, and (viii) adsorption. Coagulation/flocculation and electrocoagulation resulted in a maximum COD removal of 16%, while techniques involving the addition of hydrogen peroxide (iii-vii) had an average of 78% TPh removal but only 20% COD removal. Adsorption resulted in a maximum of 29% COD and 75% TPh removal. None of the tested techniques were able to remove more than 50% of COD, indicating the difficulty of removing organic matter in this effluent. However, advanced oxidation techniques were effective in degrading phenolic compounds, although they required relatively high dosages of oxidant.</p> Ramiro José Espinheira Martins Thais Theomaris Grabowski Copyright (c) 2024 Ramiro José Espinheira Martins,Thais Theomaris Grabowski https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 725–730 725–730 10.29227/IM-2024-01-84 Obróbka dla przemysłu ekstrakcji oliwy z oliwek poprzez zastosowanie peroksy-elektroutleniania https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/577 <p>This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of peroxy-electrooxidation (PEO) for treating wastewater from the olive pomace oil extraction industry. The response surface methodology was utilized to optimize the efficiency of the PEO process under varying conditions of electrolysis time, current density, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) dosage. Appling graphite/aluminum sheets as cathode/anode in the treatment process showed that the concentration of H2O2 directly affected the efficiency of total phenolic compounds (TPh) removal. It was observed that at an H2O2 concentration of 15 g L-1, the removal efficiency was less than 80%. The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) is mainly influenced by the dosage of H2O2 and the reaction time. The experiments conducted on the PEO processes with graphite/iron sheets showed that the highest removal of TPh was achieved with an H2O2 dosage of 30 g L-1 and an intermediate reaction time of 30 minutes. Current density also had an impact on TPh removal. Regarding COD removal, the results showed that the highest removal rates were attained with increased H2O2 concentrations, but reaction time was a positive factor, with better results obtained with 30 and 50 minutes. The PEO is recommended as a pre-treatment for TPh removal but not for COD and other treatment processes should be evaluated.</p> Ramiro José Espinheira Martins Luis Felipe Nascimento Pinheiro Thais Theomaris Grabowski Copyright (c) 2024 Ramiro José Espinheira Martins,Luis Felipe Nascimento Pinheiro,Thais Theomaris Grabowski https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 731–740 731–740 10.29227/IM-2024-01-85 Oczyszczanie ścieków z wytłoczyn z oliwek poprzez elektrokoagulację peroksydacyjną z wykorzystaniem arkuszy aluminiowych https://inzynieriamineralna.com.pl/index.php/testowe/article/view/578 <p>The extraction of olive pomace oil is a significant aspect of the edible oil industry in Mediterranean regions where olives are widely cultivated. The resulting wastewater generated from this industry is known to harbor pollutants, including residual solvents, oils, and chemicals from the refining process, that can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. Peroxy-electrocoagulation (PEC) is a method that can be used to treat wastewater from the olive pomace oil extraction industry. The purpose of the work was to reduce the concentration of pollutants in the effluent through the use of PEC with aluminum electrodes as a method of treatment. The Box-Behnken Design was used to study the relationship between hydrogen peroxide dosage (10, 20, and 30 g L-1), electric current density (5, 20 and 35 mA cm-2), and the initial pH (2.5, 3.5, and 4.5), in the PEC process, and the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenolic compounds (TPh). The highest removal was obtained with hydrogen peroxide dosage of 30 g L-1, and 20 mA cm-2, and with 29% of TPh removal at pH 2.5, and with 84% COD removal at pH 4.5. The procedure removed an average of 22% COD and 82% TPh. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide was one of the most significant factors in the process. Pre-treatment with other techniques is necessary to reduce harmful elements in the effluent before undergoing biological treatment.</p> Ramiro José Martins Leticia Harumi Tesuka Thais Theomaris Grabowski Copyright (c) 2024 Ramiro José Martins,Leticia Harumi Tesuka,Thais Theomaris Grabowski https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-06-25 2024-06-25 1 1 741–747 741–747 10.29227/IM-2024-01-86